Evaluation of Endoscopic Tubectomy for Sterilization of Female Formosan Macaques (Macaca cyclopis)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2014

Pin-Huan Yu1, DVM, MS; Hung-Chih Kuo2, DVM, PhD; Chau-Hwa Chi1, DVM, PhD

1Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan (R.O.C.); 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City, Taiwan (R.O.C.)


Formosan macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is a native primate in Taiwan in the Cercopithecidae family. They are highly adapted to all kinds of environments and habitats.3 As in other countries, human-macaque conflict is also present in Taiwan. Therefore, numerous management strategies have been proposed.1,4 Among the various contraceptive techniques, one of them is endoscopic tubectomy. This procedure refers to cautery to cut off a segment of the fallopian tube with laparoscopic and bipolar coagulation set-up to occlude the tubes.2 The purpose of the study reported here was to record the complications encountered during the surgery and the long-term effects of endoscopic tubectomy to Formosan macaques. Nineteen Formosan macaques were anesthetized for endoscopic tubectomy and complications of the surgeries were recorded. Severity of intraoperative hemorrhage was objectively scored. The pattern of serum sex hormones was evaluated for two ovarian cycles following the surgery. Two to thirteen months later, eight of 19 macaques again underwent endoscopic observation of the surgical sites. During the evaluation, inflammatory scores of the cut ends and reproductive system were objectively scored. The most frequent complications were meso-salphingeal and meso-ovarian bleeding. No serious complications were found in the study. The average hemorrhagic score was 1.21. Little postoperative inflammation was recorded and the average inflammatory score was 1.59. 24 of 32 cut ends were identified with no recanalization. The hormone pattern was not affected by tubectomy. In this study, laparoscopic tubectomy was proved to be a safe, effective, lifetime sterile, technique for wild macaques in many aspects.

Literature Cited

1.  Shek CT, Cheng WW. Population survey and contraceptive/neutering programme of macaques in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Biodiversity. 2010;19:4–7.

2.  EngenderHealth. Female sterilization. In: EngenderHealth, ed. Contraceptive Sterilization: Global Issues and Trends. New York: EngenderHealth; 2002:139–160.

3.  Hsu MJ, Lin JF. Troop size and structure in free-ranging Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan. Zool Stud. 2001;40(1):49–60.

4.  Priston NEC, McLennan MR. Managing humans, managing macaques: human-macaques conflicts in Asia and Africa. In: Radhakrishna S, Huffman MA, Sinha A, eds. The Macaque Connection. New York: Springer; 2013:225–250.


Speaker Information
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Pin-Huan Yu, DVM, MS
Department of Veterinary Medicine
National Taiwan University
Taipei City, Taiwan

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