Evaluation of In-House Urine Dipstick, Reference Laboratory Urinalysis, and Urine Protein:Creatinine Ratio from a Colony of Goeldi’s Monkeys (Callimico goeldii)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2014

Sarah A. Cannizzo1, VMD, MA; Jennifer N. Langan2,3, DVM, DACZM; Mark Warneke2, BS; Matthew Allender3, DVM, MS, PhD, DACZM3

1Wildlife Safari, Winston, OR, USA; 2Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, IL, USA; 3University of Illinois, College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, IL, USA


This study evaluated results from an in-house (IH) laboratory dipstick, a reference laboratory (RL) urinalysis, and urine protein:creatinine (UPC) ratios from Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii). Urine was collected on two occasions from 25 individuals comprising a single captive colony in North America and compared based on laboratory, sex, age class, and presence/absence of a normal urinalysis. Urine specific gravity and pH between laboratories were statistically different and compared separately, but all other analytes were combined for the statistical analysis. Overall, 42–100% of animals had at least a trace amount of protein in their urine. In comparing normal and abnormal urinalyses UPC, quantitative protein measurement, RL dipstick protein, and RL pH were all statistically different. Eleven animals (44%) in round 1 and nine animals (36%) in round 2 had UPC ratios ≥0.5. Based on results of this study, UPC for Callimico sp. >0.3 was found to be abnormal and supportive of renal compromise. Higher protein in the 1–4-year age class was the only significant age-related difference. There was no association between any categorical variable (glucose, blood, bilirubin, ketones, urobilinogen) and abnormal urinalysis. Since renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this species,1,2 we recommend including routine urinalyses and UPC ratios as part of preventive care programs for this species. These data provide the first published information on urinalysis and UPC ratios in this species and will serve as a helpful reference for interpreting results and evaluating patients with renal disease.


The authors would like to thank the animal care staff at the Brookfield Zoo for collecting the urine samples for this study.

Literature Cited

1.  Crissey SD, Meehan TP, Langman C, Pruett-Jones MA. Vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH) 2D and kidney function indices and the relationship to diet in Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii). Zoo Biol. 1999;18:565–574.

2.  Zdziarski JM, Sarich NA, Witecki KE, Lednicky JA. Molecular analysis of SV-40-CAL, a new slow growing SV-40 strain from the kidney of a caged New World monkey with fatal renal disease. Virus Genes. 2004;29(2):183–190.


Speaker Information
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Sarah A. Cannizzo, VMD, MA
Wildlife Safari
Winston, OR, USA

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