Evaluation of a Novel Technique as an Indicator of Immunoglobulin Passive Transfer in Six Species of Non-Domestic Ruminant
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2014
Jessica A. Emerson1,2, DVM; Marcie L. Oliva2, CVT, RVT; Scott B. Citino2, DVM, DACZM
1College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2White Oak Conservation Holdings, LLC, Yulee, FL, USA


Many tests are available to evaluate immunoglobulin (Ig) passive transfer,1,3 but an ideal assay that is accurate, specific, quantitative, economical, easily performed, and rapid is not available to date. A novel technique to assess passive transfer, termed the Ig Immunocrit has recently been described in swine.2 Briefly, 100 μl of serum is mixed with 100 μl of 40% (NH4)2SO4, a non-heparinized hematocrit tube is filled with the mixture, one end of the tube sealed with clay, and then tubes are centrifuged for 5 minutes. The resulting precipitate is read as a percentage of the total fluid column using a standard hematocrit card. The correlation between the Ig Immunocrit and serum gamma globulin concentrations measured by protein electrophoresis in Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus, n=10), Southern gerenuk (Litocranius walleri walleri, n=8), Addra gazelle (Nanger dama ruficollis, n=10), giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus gigas, n=9), lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis, n=8), and Eastern bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, n=10) was evaluated in neonates with evidence of adequate or failure of passive transfer. Linear regression correlation was strongly positive for all and ranged from an R2 of 0.8750 to 0.9813 depending on species. There was no statistically significant difference between species in the Ig Immunocrit of animals that appeared to have adequate passive transfer (p=0.83) and a mean of 11.55% with a standard deviation of 3.28% was noted (Min. 5%, Max. 18.25%, n=52). The Ig Immunocrit should be evaluated in additional artiodactylids and increased sample sizes to further determine the scope of applicability.

Literature Cited

1.  Lee SH, Jaekal J, Bae CS, Chung BH, Yun SC, Gwak MJ, Noh GJ, Lee DH. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, single radial immunodiffusion, and indirect methods for the detection of failure of passive transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:212–218.

2.  Vallet JL, Miles JR, Rempel LA. A simple novel measure of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin is predictive of preweaning mortality in piglets. Vet J. 2013;195:91–97.

3.  Weaver DM, Tyler JW, VanMetre DC, Hostetler DE, Barrington GM. 2000. Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins in calves. J Vet Intern Med. 2000;14:569–577.


Speaker Information
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Jessica A. Emerson, DVM
College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL, USA

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