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ABSTRACT OF THE WEEK

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Volume 12 | Issue 6 (March 2022)

Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Malarone®, Azithromycin and Artesunate Combination for Treatment of Babesia gibsoni in Naturally Infected Dogs.

Animals (Basel). March 2022;12(6):.
Martina Karasová1, Csilla Tóthová2, Bronislava Víchová3, Lucia Blaňarová4, Terézia Kisková5, Simona Grelová6, Radka Staroňová7, Alena Micháľová8, Martin Kožár9, Oskar Nagy10, Mária Fialkovičová11
1 Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 2 Clinic of Ruminants, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 3 Institute of Parasitology, Slovac Academy of Sciences, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 4 Institute of Parasitology, Slovac Academy of Sciences, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 5 Faculty of Science, University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik, 04180 Košice, Slovakia.; 6 Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 7 Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 8 Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 9 Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 10 Clinic of Ruminants, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.; 11 Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.

Abstract

Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne protozoal blood parasite that may cause hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, lethargy, and/or splenomegaly in dogs. Many drugs have been used in management of canine babesiosis such as monotherapy or combined treatment, including diminazene aceturate, imidocarb dipropionate, atovaquone, and antibiotics. This report examines the effectiveness and safety of Malarone®, azithromycin (AZM) and artesunate (ART) combination for the treatment of babesiosis in dogs naturally infected with Babesia gibsoni. Twelve American Pit Bull Terriers were included in the experiment. Examined dogs underwent clinical and laboratory analysis including hematology and biochemistry profile and serum protein electrophoresis. After diagnosis, the dogs received combined therapy with Malarone® (13.5 mg/kg PO q24 h), azithromycin (10 mg/kg PO q24 h) and artesunate (12.5 mg/kg PO q24 h) for 10 days. The combined treatment improved hematology and biochemical parameters to the reference range gradually during the first 14 days already, resulting in the stable values until day 56 after treatment. No clinically apparent adverse effects were reported during treatment and monitoring. No relapses of parasitemia were detected in control days 180, 360, 540 and 720 in all dogs. Results of the study indicate that the combined treatment leads to successful elimination of parasitemia in chronically infected dogs with B. gibsoni.

Keywords
Babesia gibsoni; Malarone®; artesunate; atovaquone; azithromycin; babesiosis; treatment;

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Grants:
VEGA 1/0177/22 Ministry of Education, Science, Search and Sport of the Slovak Republic
VEGA 1/0314/20 Ministry of Education, Science, Search and Sport of the Slovak Republic
VEGA 1/0658/20 Ministry of Education, Science, Search and Sport of the Slovak Republic
VEGA 2/0014/21 Ministry of Education, Science, Search and Sport of the Slovak Republic

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