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ABSTRACT OF THE WEEK

Canine medicine and genetics.
Volume 9 | Issue 1 (January 2022)

Retrospective study of canine cutaneous tumors submitted to a diagnostic pathology laboratory in Northern Portugal (2014-2020).

Canine Med Genet. January 2022;9(1):2.
Ana Luísa Martins1, Ana Canadas-Sousa2, Joao R Mesquita3, Patrícia Dias Pereira4, Irina Amorim5, Fatima Gartner6
1 Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade Do Porto (ICBAS), 4050-313, Porto, Portugal. analuisam11@gmail.com.; 2 Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade Do Porto (ICBAS), 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.; 3 Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade Do Porto (ICBAS), 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.; 4 Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade Do Porto (ICBAS), 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.; 5 Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade Do Porto (ICBAS), 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.; 6 Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade Do Porto (ICBAS), 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.
© 2022. The Author(s).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:Cutaneous neoplastic diseases are the most and second-most frequently reported tumors in male and female dogs, respectively. The aims of this study were to report the occurrence of canine cutaneous tumors in a pathology laboratory located in Northern Portugal between 2014 and 2020, and to characterize and categorize the anatomical locations, breed, age, and sex of the animals affected with different types of neoplasms.
RESULTS:Throughout the 7-year study, 1,185 cases were diagnosed as cutaneous tumors, with 62.9% being classified as benign, and 37.1% as malignant. Mast cell tumors (22.7%) were the most frequently diagnosed tumor type, followed by benign soft tissue tumors (9.7%), sebaceous gland tumors (8.1%), vascular tumors (7.9%) and soft tissue sarcomas (7.6%). Cutaneous tumors commonly exhibited multicentric occurrence (14.6%) followed by single occurrence in hindlimb (12.1%), forelimb (8.6%), buttock (7.1%), abdominal (6.5%) and costal (5.2%) areas. The odds of developing cutaneous neoplasia were higher with increasing age (p < 0.001). Females had an increased odds of developing skin tumors compared to males (crude OR = 2.99, 95% (2.51, 3.55); adj OR = 2.93, 95% (2.46, 3.49). Purebred dogs, as a group, showed a reduced odds of developing cutaneous tumors when compared to mixed-breed dogs (crude OR = 0.63, 95% (0.53, 0.74); adj OR = 0.75, 95% (0.62, 0.89).
CONCLUSIONS:Mast cell tumors, benign soft tissue tumors and sebaceous tumors were the most common histotypes encountered. The epidemiological survey achieved with this study demonstrates the relative frequency of different types of tumors in this particular population. Furthermore, the results herein achieved can act as a basis or a beneficial reference for local veterinarians helping in the establishment of a preliminary and presumptive diagnosis of canine cutaneous tumors histotypes. Skin tumors are the most and second-most frequently reported tumors in male and female dogs, respectively. The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of canine skin tumors in a diagnostic pathology laboratory located in Northern Portugal, between 2014-2020 and to characterize the anatomical distributions, breed, age, and sex of the animals affected by different skin tumors. During this period, 1,185 cases were diagnosed as skin tumors; 62.9% were diagnosed as benign, while 37.1% were malignant. Mast cell tumors (22.7%) were the most frequently diagnosed neoplasia, followed by benign soft tissue tumors (9.7%), sebaceous gland tumors (8.1%), vascular tumors (7.9%) and soft tissue sarcomas (7.6%). Skin tumors commonly developed in more than one location (14.6%) followed by solitary development in hindlimb (12.1%), forelimb (8.6%), buttock (7.1%), abdominal (6.5%) and costal (5.2%) areas. An increased odds of developing skin neoplasms as the patient's age increase was detected. Females showed an increased odds in comparison to male dogs. Purebred dogs presented decreased odds for developing skin tumors in comparison to mixed-breed dogs. The information relevance achieved with this study demonstrates the relative frequency of different types of tumors in this particular population, acting as a basis or a beneficial reference for regional veterinarians when providing an initial diagnosis of canine skin tumors.

Companion Notes

Retrospective study of canine cutaneous tumors submitted to a diagnostic pathology laboratory in Northern Portugal

   

Study design

- study sample:

- specimens submitted to a pathology laboratory in Northern Portugal

(University of Porto)

- exclusion criteria: incomplete record

- cases diagnosed with the following:

- epithelial cyst

- modified sebaceous and apocrine gland such as the following:

- ceruminous gland tumor

- mammary gland tumor

- anal sac gland tumor

- Meibomian gland tumor

- procedure: records between 01/14 and 06/20 retrospectively reviewed

   

Results in the 1185 submissions diagnosed as cutaneous tumors from 937 dogs

- 62.9% were classified as benign and 37.1% as malignant

- location

- multicentric occurrence, 14.6%

- 19.08% were mast cell tumors

- 16.18% were benign soft tissue tumors

- 15.03% were sebaceous gland tumors

- single occurrence

- in hindlimb, 12.1%

- 39.86% were mast cell tumors

- 15.38% were soft tissue sarcomas

- forelimb, 8.6%

- 20.59% were soft tissue sarcomas

- 16.67% were mast cell tumors

- 12.75% were benign soft tissue tumors

- buttock area, 7.1%

- hepatoid gland tumors, 97.76%

- abdominal area (6.5%)

- mast cell tumors, 31.17%

- costal area (5.2%)

- history and signalment

- odds of developing cutaneous neoplasia were higher with increasing age

- females had an increased odds of developing skin tumors compared to sex:Ms

- crude Odds Ratio (OR): 2.99; 95% CI: 2.51-3.55

- adjusted OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 2.46-3.49

- purebred dogs, as a group, had a reduced odds of developing cutaneous tumors

- as compared to mixed-breed dogs

- crude OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.53-0.74

- adjusted OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.62-0.89

- median age of affected dogs at diagnosis: 10 years of age with a range of 0-18

- sex:F dog, 51.4%

- breeds affected in over 3.0% of cases among the 78 dog breeds affected

- mixed-breed dog, 34.1%

- Labrador retriever, 18.1%

- boxer, 9.8%

- cocker spaniel, 3.5%

- golden retriever, 3.3%

- most frequently diagnosed tumors

- mast cell tumors, 22.7%

- benign soft tissue tumors, 9.7%

- sebaceous gland tumors, 8.1%

- vascular tumors, 7.9%

- soft tissue sarcomas, 7.6%

- tumor type and relative frequency (% of all skin tumors)

- epithelial tumors, 28.61%

- epidermal tumors, 5.06%

- basal cell carcinoma, 0.51%

- papilloma, 1.86%

- squamous cell carcinoma, 2.70%

- hair follicle tumors, 5.82%

(Basset hound had a higher breed-specific occurrence)

- infundibular keratinizing acanthoma, 0.84%

- tricholemmoma, 0.17%

- trichoblastoma, 1.69%

- trichoepithelioma, 2.28%

- pilomatricoma, 0.51%

- subungual keratoacanthoma, 0.25%

- sebaceous gland tumors, 8.10%

- sebaceous adenoma, 5.23%

- sebaceous epithelioma, 2.87%

- cocker spaniel had a high breed-specific occurrence

(compared to other breeds)

- for benign sebaceous tumors

- apocrine gland tumors, 1.52%

- apocrine adenoma, 0.68%

- apocrine carcinoma, 0.51%

- hepatoid gland tumors, 7.43%

- hepatoid adenoma, 4.81%

- hepatoid epithelioma, 1.18%

- hepatoid carcinoma, 0.84%

- hepatoid neoplasm, 0.59%

- epithelial tumors, not otherwise specified, 0.68%

- adenocarcinoma, 0.08%

- carcinoma, not otherwise specified, 0.34%

- melanocytic tumors, 3.63%

- melanocytoma, 1.94%

- melanoma, 1.69%

- mesenchymal tumors, 26.24%

- benign soft tissue tumors, 9.70%

- lipoma, 7.26%

- infiltrative lipoma, 6.98%

- fibroma, 2.11%

- myxoma, 0.25%

- soft tissue sarcomas, 7.59%

- fibrosarcoma, 0.17%

- perivascular wall tumor, 1.69%

- peripheral nerve sheath tumor, 3.29

- liposarcoma, 0.17%

- sarcoma, not otherwise specified, 1.77%

- sinovial sarcoma, 0.25%

- myxosarcoma, 0.25%

- vascular tumors, 7.93%

- hemangioma, 5.74%

- lymphangioma, 0.25%

- hemangiosarcoma, 1.94%

- Dogo Argentino had a 71.4% breed-specific occurrence

- musculoskeletal tumors, 0.68%

- osteosarcoma, 0.34%

- mesenchymal neoplasm, not otherwise specified, 0.25%

- hemolymphatic tumors, 30.13%

- mast cell tumors (MCT), 22.70%

- cutaneous mast cell tumors, 20.59% (90.7% of all MCT cases)

- subcutaneous, 1.77%

- mast cell tumors, not otherwise classified, 0.34%

- located in hindlimb, abdominal or costal region, 8.6%

- 12.3% had a multicentric development

- higher breed-specific occurrence than other breeds

- Labrador retriever

- boxer

- plasmocytic tumors, 1.52%

- plasmocytoma, 1.43%

- lymphomas, 0.51%

- T‑cell lymphoma

- histioproliferative disorders, 5.15%

- histiocytoma, 4.89%

- histiocytic sarcoma, 0.25%

- round cell neoplasm, not otherwise specified, 0.25%

- hamartoma, 4.73%

- tumor like lesions, 5.99%

- acrochordon, 5.99%

- cutaneous neoplasm, not otherwise classified, 0.68%

- undifferentiated malignancy, 0.68%

   

“Sebaceous tumors are frequently found in the facial, cranial, and cervical region with a high tendency for multicentric growth, and a notable occurrence in Labrador retrievers and cocker spaniels…”

Keywords
Age; Anatomic location; Breed; Cancer; Cutaneous tumor; Dog; Sex;

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