Current Status of Hydatidosis/Echinococcosis: Guidelines for Surveillance, Biology, Diagnosis and Recommendations for Prevention and Control in Egypt
Parasitology & Anim. Dis. Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza,Egypt
Hydatidosis is a cyclozoonotic infection of a world wide distribution. The disease still presents an economic and public health problems with low to high degree of endemicity.
The success of control program has not been wholly achieved. This partial failure may be due to the variety of intermediate hosts (camels, horses, donkeys, sheep, goats, pigs, etc.). Camels were highly susceptible to hydatid infection (40%). However, the other intermediate hosts had lower infection. Cows and buffaloes had no hydatid infection. Hydatid cysts were mainly located in liver and lung of camels, while those of other intermediate hosts were located only in liver. Both fertility and viability rates of the hydatid cysts of each host were discussed in details, in addition to the existence of distinct strains or variants from Echinococcus.
Morpho-biological results supported the suggestion that at least two distinct strains of domestic animals cycle (camel and equine) origins exist in Egypt. Echinococcus granulosus of equine origin may spread into areas where equine hydatidosis was not yet endemic as Egypt. These results may change the concepts of epidemiology and speciation.
Comparative immunodiagnostic studies on Echinococcus of camel origin in experimentally infected puppies proved that both copro-antigen and IgG ELISA could be considered possible diagnostic tools in diagnosis during both prepatent and patent periods of Echinococcus infection. However, copro-antigen ELISA had higher sensitivity for diagnosis.
Suggested preventive and control measures against hydatid and Echinococcus infections were also discussed.