The Influence of Several Anthelminthic Preparations on Toxocara Canis Eggs in Vitro
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2004
1Hovhannes Z. Naghashyan, DVM, PhD; 2Oleg V. Shcherbakov, DVM, MSc
1Professor. Head: Parasitology Department, Armenian Agricultural Academy, 2Researcher, Department of Parasitology of the Armenian Agricultural Academy

SUMMARY

The direct influence of piperazine adipinate, nilverm and atazole-forte on the eggs of Toxocara canis has been studied. It has been discovered, that these preparations don't render immediate ovicidal effect, although they delay the development of eggs.

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays the large quantity of anthelminthic preparations is applied for animal and human deworming in veterinary and medical practice. There are unitary data about direct influence anthelminthics on worms egg in existent literature. According to V.F. Melashenko and A.M. Kelina (1957), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs develop normally after oxygenotherapy. E. I. Malakhova (1958) and O.I. Plaan (1961) noticed that santonine, sodium fluoride and tetrachlormethane did not render any influence on the development and infestive properties of Ascaris suum and Parascaris equorum eggs after deworming. O.I. Plaan (1961) also noticed that Ascaris suum eggs matured to infestive stage in usual terms after faeces treatment with santonine, sodium fluoride, hexachloroethane or phenothiazine in 1:100-1:2000 proportions. According to H. Kutsumi and Y. Komiya(1965), thiabendazole renders ovicidal action on eggs of ascarides and whipworms in concentrations from 4 x 10-4 to 3.9 x 10-7 within 3 to 7 days. According to H. Maissoneuve and I.F. Rossignol (1985), albendazole renders high ovicidal effect on Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichocephalus trichiuris eggs.

Taking into account the above-mentioned circumstances, we decided to test in vitro the influence of several anthelminthic preparations, which were popular in veterinary practice in our country, on the eggs of Toxocara canis ( Werner, 1782 ), which is the most distributed canine roundworm in Armenia and all over the world.

METHODS AND AIMS

The researches were carried out in February - March, 2002, at the Department of Parasitology of the Armenian Agricultural Academy. As an object of researches Toxocara canis eggs were chosen because of wide prevalence of toxocariasis. Besides, this disease is also extremely dangerous for people. The eggs of T. canis were separated by the method of N. A. Romanenko and N. I. Khijnyak (1972) from faeces of intensively infested dogs. The eggs were at the zygote stage.

The experiments were carried out in vitro. The influence of following anthelminthic preparations on T. canis eggs was tested:

 1. 2.5% and 1% aquatic solutions of piperazine adipinate;

 2. 2% and 1% aquatic solutions of nilverm, the analog of tetramizole;

 3. 1% and 0.5% aquatic solutions of atazole-forte, the analog of albendazole.

The running water was taken as a control. Toxocara canis eggs were placed in solution of tested anthelminthics in proportions - 1000 eggs in 5 ml of solution. The prepared suspensions were poured out into the bottles and placed into thermostat at the temperature +30degreesC. The observations on the eggs were performed in dynamics during 14 days: the first 5 days- every day, and after that - day about.

RESULTS

The results of study of anthelminthics influence on T. canis eggs are adduced in the following table:

Table: Comparative dynamics of Toxocara canis eggs development under the influence of anthelminthic preparations

Stages of development

Different stages of development reach terms

Under the influence of piperazine adipinate

Under the influence of nilverm

Under the influence of atazole-forte

Control sample

2,5%

1%

2%

1%

1%

0.5%

Water

8 blastomeres

2nd day

2nd day

2nd day

2nd day

2nd day

2nd day

The end of the 1st day

16 blastomeres

2nd day

2nd day

2nd day

2nd day

2nd day

6th day

The end of the 1st day

Morule

3d day

3d day

5th day

5th day

Wasn't reached

8th day

2nd day

Thick larva

8th day

6th day

9th day

8thday

Wasn't reached

Wasn't reached

2nd day

1st stage larva

9th day

-

Wasn't reached

9th day

Wasn't reached

Wasn't reached

4th day

2nd stage larva*

14th day

-

Wasn't reached

Wasn't reached

Wasn't reached

Wasn't reached

9th day

*Comment: The 2nd stage larvae were defined by the covers on front and rear tips.

DISCUSSION

The table shows, that the development of T. canis eggs in aquatic solutions of anthelminthic preparations is considerably slowed down. However, the anthelminthics in above-mentioned concentrations do not result in eggs destruction.

The strongest ovostatical action render the aquatic suspensions of atazole-forte. In 1% and 0.5% aquatic suspensions of this preparation the eggs develop only to the morule stage, which is reached at 8th day. The death of eggs begins since 6th day.

Weaker ovostatical action render 2% and 1% aquatic solutions of nilverm. In 2% solution the eggs develop only to the thick larva stage and in 1% develop to 1st stage immobile larva, which is reached within 9th day. The death of eggs in solutions of nilverm is not noticed.

The weakest ovostatical influence has been noticed in 2.5% and 1% aquatic solutions of piperazine adipinate. The 1st stage larvae in 2.5% solution have been reached at 9th day and the 2nd stage larvae have been reached at 14th day. These solutions have not caused eggs destruction.

CONCLUSIONS

Therefore the tested anthelminthic preparations form following row by their ovostatical action:

atazole-forte(albendazole)- nilverm (tetramisole)- piperazine adipinate.

Besides the results of the researches show that T. canis eggs are capable to reach the 2nd stage infestive larvae in aquatic solutions of piperazine adipinate, and thus animals dewormed with piperazine adipinate, will be carried out with special precaution, and the animals will be forcedly tied, and their faeces will be disinfested after deworming.

REFERENCES

1.  H. Kutsumi, Y. Komiya. Effect of thiabendazole as an ovicide on helminth eggs in nightsoil // Jap. J. Med. Sci. Biol., 1965, v.18, #4, p. 203-224.

2.  H. Maissonneuve, I. F. Rossignol. Ovicidal effects of albendazole in human ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, and trichuriasis // Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1985, v.79, #1, p. 79-82.

3.  E.I. Malakhova., The influence of anthelminthics on parasitic worms eggs and larvae, eliminated from animals after deworming // NHIAS STI Bulletin. Moscow, 1958, #3, p. 48-55.

4.  V.F. Melashenko, A.M. Kelina. Ascarides eggs development after oxygenotherapy // Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases. 1957, Suppl. to #1, p. 68.

5.  O.I. Plaan., In influence of some physical, climatic and chemical factors on Ascaris suum (Goese, 1782) eggs // "The Questions of Parasitology in Baltic Republics". Riga, 1961, p. 107-110.

6.  N.A. Romanenko, N.I. Khizhnyak. The helminth eggs pure culture separation method during evaluation of environmental sanitary conditions // Hygiene and Sanitation, 1972, #9, p. 72-75.

Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Hovhannes Z. Naghashyan, DVM, PhD
Professor. Head: Parasitology Department,
Armenian Agricultural Academy


MAIN : Abstracts : Toxocara Canis Eggs in Vitro
Powered By VIN

Friendly Reminder to Our Colleagues: Use of VIN content is limited to personal reference by VIN members. No portion of any VIN content may be copied or distributed without the expressed written permission of VIN.

Clinicians are reminded that you are ultimately responsible for the care of your patients. Any content that concerns treatment of your cases should be deemed recommendations by colleagues for you to consider in your case management decisions. Dosages should be confirmed prior to dispensing medications unfamiliar to you. To better understand the origins and logic behind these policies, and to discuss them with your colleagues, click here.

Images posted by VIN community members and displayed via VIN should not be considered of diagnostic quality and the ultimate interpretation of the images lies with the attending clinician. Suggestions, discussions and interpretation related to posted images are only that -- suggestions and recommendations which may be based upon less than diagnostic quality information.

CONTACT US

777 W. Covell Blvd., Davis, CA 95616

vingram@vin.com

PHONE

  • Toll Free: 800-700-4636
  • From UK: 01-45-222-6154
  • From anywhere: (1)-530-756-4881
  • From Australia: 02-6145-2357
SAID=27