Selected Diseases in Reptiles
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2004
Manfred Hochleithner, DECAMS
Tierklinik Strebersdorf, Muehlweg 5, Vienna, Austria

COMMON CLINICAL CONDITIONS OF SNAKES

Trauma, Bite wounds from Prey

 Therapy: suture if possible, topical and systemic antibiotics

Dermatitis

 Diagnosis: Ectoparasites (check under scales, around nostrils, eye scales--use magnification) or contact dermatitis skin/scale biopsy, microbiology

 Therapy: Ivermectin, bathing, substrate control, use paper

Burns from Heating or/and Lights

 Therapy: Correct husbandry, supportive care, fluids, antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections

Anorexia

 Diagnosis: Physical exam, exact history including housing, fecal float and direct, blood, radiology,

 Therapy: Correct husbandry problems, supportive care like fluids, feeding

Obstipation, Constipation

 Diagnosis: Physical exam, radiographs, exact history including housing

 Therapy: enema, fluids, appropriate temperature, soak in warm water

Diarrhea

 Amoebiasis, Salmonella, Enteric bacteria disease, parasites, virus (Adeno, Parvo, Picorna, Herpes)

 Diagnosis: Physical exam , fecal float and direct

 Therapy: symptomatic with appropriate antimicrobials and anthelmintics

Dyspnea

 Pneumonia, respiratory infection, hyperthermia

 Diagnosis: Physical exam with care on oral exam; lung wash, microbiology

 Therapy: supportive, O2, antimicrobials, fluids, nebulization

COMMON CLINICAL CONDITIONS OF CHELONIAN SPECIES

Anorexia

 Husbandry, respiratory disease, endoparasites, egg binding, hypo and hypervitaminosis, foreign bodies impaction, malnutrition, post-hibernation

 Diagnosis: Physical exam, radiographs, exact history including housing, weight, blood

 Therapy: supportive, treat underlying conditions, fluid therapy, vitamins in selected species--avoid hypervitaminosis A!!!, Antibiotics only if necessary, temperature and UV light cycle, warm water bath, tube feed

Constipation

 Impaction, foreign body ingestion, wrong temperature in environment, endoparasites, egg binding, neoplasia

 Diagnosis: Physical exam, radiographs, exact history including housing, cloacal wash, blood, endoscopy

 Therapy: soak in warm water, soap enema, gavage with laxative

Dyspnoea

 Airway obstruction, large bladder stone, glottis inflammation, egg binding, malnutrition, pneumonia

 Diagnosis: Tracheal wash, radiograph, physical exam, exact history including housing

 Therapy: Antibiotics if warranted

COMMON CLINICAL CONDITIONS OF LIZARDS

Anorexia

 Respiratory disease, egg retention, systemic disease, parasites, diet and husbandry

 metabolic bone disease, renal disease, foreign body, fatty liver disease

 Diagnosis: Physical exam, exact history including housing, blood, radiograph, fecal examination

 Therapy: supportive, rehydrate, gavage feeding, fluids, proper temperature, UV light, keep well hydrated--no aminoglycosides or SXT

Constipation

 Kidney enlargement, GI stasis (temperature related), foreign body

 Diagnosis: radiograph, blood, physical examination

 Therapy: warm to proper body temperature, fluids, enema, gavage mineral oil, supportive care

Dehydration

 Renal failure, gout, kidney disease, poor environment, inappropriate diet

 Diagnosis: History, blood (Ca, P), kidney biopsy

 Therapy: rehydrate, low protein diet, no spinach, no aminoglycosides or SXT

Dyspnoea

 Bacterial/fungal involvement, hyperthermia, pneumonia, large bladder stone, glottis inflammation, stomatitis

 Diagnosis: History, blood, radiograph, tracheal wash, bacterial culture

 Therapy: warm environment, fluids, antibiotics antifungals

Muscle tremors

 Nutritional. trauma, septicemia, liver or kidney failure, parasites, toxicities

 Diagnosis: blood, radiograph, history

 Therapy: Fluids, calcium if hypocalcemia is suspected

Lethargy

 Egg binding, dystocia, hypothermia, metabolic bone disease

 Diagnosis: Palpation, radiograph, ultrasound, physical exam, exact history including housing and diet, blood

 Therapy: supportive, calcium, UV light, diet corrections, minimize handling

Reptile formulary

Drug

Route

Dosage

Comments

Amikacin

IM

2,5mg/kg q72h

Give sc fluids,
nephrotoxic!

Calcium gluconate

IM, iv, sc

100mg/kg

Give with fluids

Cephalothin sodium

IM

20-40mg/kg q12h

 

Enrofloxacin

PO, IM, SC, IV

5-10mg/kg q24-72h

 

Oxytocin

IM

20 IU/kg,
Chelonians: 1-2 IU/kg

Eggs usually
within 2hours

Gavage feeding

 

2% of BW or 20ml/kg

 

Fluid therapy

iv, ic, sc, io

4%BW q12-24h

Warm fluids

Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Manfred Hochleithner, DECAMS
Tierklinik Strebersdorf
Vienna, Austria


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