Hematology and Biochemistry Panel Reference Intervals for Captive Saddleback (Amphiprion polymnus) and Tomato Clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus): A Twin Study
IAAAM 2019
Sarah E. Wright1*+; Gregory A. Lewbart2; Roy P. Yanong3; Nicole I. Stacy4; Reilee N. Juhl5
1Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA; 2Department of Clinical Sciences and the Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, IFAS/University of Florida, Ruskin, FL, USA; 4 Department of Comparative, Diagnostic, and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Department of Animal Science and the Prestage Family Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA


Reference intervals are an important diagnostic tool that clinicians use to make accurate clinical decisions.1 Reference intervals for routine hematology and biochemistry panels for many fish species have been documented.2-9 There are published data that show how environmental manipulation affects isolated hematology and blood biochemistry values in clownfish. However, there are no published data that have established reference intervals for routine hematology and blood biochemistry panels for this popular cultured marine fish (including Amphiprion spp.).10 The objective of this study was to establish de novo reference intervals for packed cell volume, total solids, white blood cell differential and blood cell morphology, lactate, and eleven common chemistry analytes using an i-STAT Portable Clinical Analyzer (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, creatine kinase, globulins, glucose, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, total protein, and uric acid) in captive clownfish. In August 2018, this twin study sampled blood from 25 clinically healthy tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus) and 38 clinically healthy saddleback clownfish (Amphiprion polymnus) from two clownfish production facilities in Florida for hematological and biochemical analysis. Blood films were created on-site for each fish for complete review. Guidelines generated by the American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology were followed to generate robust reference intervals from the data collected. The results generated from this study provide baseline health data for clownfish species that can be used by clinicians for clinical decision making, while also serving as a springboard for further studies.


The authors wish to thank Mr. Kent Passingham of North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Mr. Denver Coleman of the University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, Mr. Eric Wagner of Proaquatix, and Mr. Adam Heinrich of Oceans, Reefs, & Aquariums. The authors thank the Robert J. Koller Endowment for Aquatic Animal Medicine and the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine Medway Scholarship Endowment for financial support of this project, and Dr. Michael O’Connor of Holy Family Veterinary Hospital for technical assistance.

*Presenting author
+Student presenter

Literature Cited

1.  Friedrichs KR, Harr KE, Freeman KP, Szladovits B, Walton RM, Barnhart KF, Blanco-Chavez J. 2012. ASVCP reference interval guidelines: determination of de novo reference intervals in veterinary species and other related topics. Vet Clin Pathol 41:441–453.

2.  Adamovicz LA, Trosclair MR, Lewbart GA. 2017. Biochemistry panel reference intervals for juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus). J Zoo Wildl Med 48:776–785.

3.  Bentinck-Smith J, Beleau MH, Waterstrat P, Tucker CS, Stiles F, Bowser PR, Brown LA. 1987. Biochemical reference ranges for commercially reared channel catfish. N Am J Aquac 49:108–114.

4.  Harr, KE, Dean K, Murawksi SA, Reavill DR, Takeshita RA. 2018. Generation of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) hematology reference intervals with a focus on identified outliers. Vet Clin Pathol 47:22–28.

5.  Hrubec TC, Cardinale JL, Smith SA. 2000. Hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals for cultured tilapia (Oreochromis hybrid). Vet Clin Pathol 29:7–12.

6.  Hrubec TC, Smith SA, Robertson JL. 2001. Age-related changes in hematology and plasma chemistry values of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis). Vet Clin Pathol 30:8–15.

7.  Matsche MA, Arnold J, Jenkins, E, Townsend H, Rosemary K. 2014. Determination of hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals for 3 populations of captive Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). Vet Clin Pathol 43:387–396.

8.  Tavares-Dias M, Moraes FR. 2007. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for farmed channel catfish. J Fish Biol 71: 383–388.

9.  Tripathi NK, Latimer KS, Burnley VV. 2004, Hematologic reference intervals for koi (Cyprinus carpio), including blood cell morphology, cytochemistry, and ultrastructure. Vet Clin Pathol 33:74–83.

10.  Gunasundari V, Kumar TA, Ghosh S, Kumaresan S. 2013. An ex vivo Loom to evaluate the brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in clownfish aquaculture with special reference to Amphiprion percula. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 13:389–395.


Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Sarah E. Wright
Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine
College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL, USA

MAIN : Session 10: Fish Medicine : Reference Intervals for Clownfish
Powered By VIN