Pharmacokinetics of a Long-Acting Formulation of Ceftiofur (Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid) Administered Intramuscularly in the Ringneck Dove (Streptopelia risoria)
Ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) (EXCEDE®; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) is a third generation, oil-based, cephalosporin antibiotic marketed as a once-weekly injection in cattle and swine and a two-time dose for a ten-day duration in horses.1,3-5 Long-acting antibiotic preparations are particularly useful for non-domestic species, though few have been documented in birds.2 This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of CCFA in ringneck doves (Streptopelia risoria) as a model for other avian species. A single intramuscular injection of 50 mg/kg CCFA was administered to 30 doves. Blood was collected from six birds at each of the following times: 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hours post injection. One additional group of six birds served as the untreated control. Birds were euthanatized at the conclusion of the study and complete postmortem and histopathologic examination of tissues was performed. Results indicate plasma concentrations remain above the minimum inhibitory concentration for most avian pathogenic bacteria (1 μg/ml)6,7 for at least 96 hours. Minimal gross pathologic changes were observed, including very mild tissue inflammation at the injection site. Based on preliminary results and histopathologic findings, a single intramuscular injection of 50 mg/kg CCFA appears to be a safe, long-acting antibiotic for ringneck doves and may be of use in other avian species.
The authors thank David Kim, the Wildlife Health Center support staff, the histopathology laboratory technicians, the Central Park Zoo staff, and the multiple veterinary students that were indispensable for the care of these birds and assistance with the study. In addition, the authors acknowledge the work by Scott Wetzlich of the University of California, School of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Drug Residue Laboratory.
This study was reviewed and approved by the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee: Project Number 09:04.
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