Dogs Anesthesia From Cholecystectomy By Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery
G.C. Gianotti; W.K. Beheregaray; K.M. Guimarães; T.N.A. Garcez; A.O. Fernandes; C.S. Cardoso; F. Schiochet; C.A.C. Beck; E.C. Contesini
NOTES is an acronym which means natural orifices transluminal endoscopic surgery. This technique combines principles of laparoscopy and endoscopy. The access to abdominal cavity occurs through hollow viscera without abdominal incision, providing benefits for the patient's recovery. During this surgical procedure the patient is subject to pneumoperitoneum with CO2 reflecting in dangerous cardiorespiratory changes: increase blood pressure, decrease in cardiac output, poor oxygenation due to the systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. This paper reports the anesthesia of three dogs experimentally submitted to transvaginal cholecystectomy by NOTES technique at veterinary hospital of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Pethidine hydrochloride (2mg.kg-1) and acepromazine maleate (0.05mg.kg-1) were used as preanesthetic medication. The induction agent was endovenous propofol (5mg.kg-1) and the maintenance was accomplished with oxygen to 100% and halothane through universal vaporizer. During the surgery, patients were undergoing at 12mmHg of CO2 pneumoperitoneum and kept on mechanical ventilation by intermittent positive-pressure. During transanesthetic period were evaluated heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), oximetry (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (PETCO2) and the patient's recovery. The maintenance of depth of anesthesia was regulated through jaw tonicity, corneal and palpebral reflex. In the post-operatory the patients received hydrochloride tramadol (3mg.kg-1) and ketoprofen (1mg.kg-1). In the anesthetic procedure the dogs presents respectively on average HR(bpm) at 106.5±37.34, 136.7±48.91,e 125.8±44.33; RR(bpm) at 13.6±5.84, 13.5±4.83 e 22.3±7.78; SpO2(%) at 99.9±33.3, 100±33.3 e 99.98±33.26; PETCO2(%) at 32.3±5.84, 42.7±14.69 e 36±13.38. The maintenance of depth of anesthesia was suitable, good muscle relaxation and no stress to surgical stimulation. The complete recovery of anesthesia was in ninety minutes. Mechanical ventilation applied was an appropriate technique to avoid the cardiorespiratory effects during the surgery. The anesthetic drugs used caused minimal systemic changes proving to be effective. During anesthesia the dogs have remained stable, with minimal cardiorespiratory changes and made excellent recovery, showing the quality of the protocol and its applicability to the surgical procedure. Videosurgery has become more common in veterinary medicine so it is important to evaluate the different anesthetic protocols and their applicability. The use of reported drugs for the procedure in conjunction of techniques of mechanical ventilation assured a good anesthesia and safe for patients submitted to NOTES.