Bali Mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) Captive Medical Management and Reintroduction Program
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 1997
Terry M. Norton1, DVM, DACZM; Robert E. Seibels2; Ellis Greiner3, PhD; Kenneth Latimer4, DVM, PhD

1Hanes Veterinary Medical Center, North Carolina Zoological Park, Asheboro, NC, USA; 2Riverbanks Zoological Park, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA


The Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) is currently a critically endangered species. The 1996 pre-breeding population census ranged from 17 to 22 birds (R. Seibels, personal communication). The American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA), along with several other organizations, have been involved in an intensive captive propagation and reintroduction program. Unfortunately, these efforts have been stagnant for the last three years due to political problems. Poaching the Bali mynah for the Indonesian pet trade and habitat destruction, are the primary reasons for its decline.1 Atoxoplasmosis and hemochromatosis are the primary medical problems in captive Bali mynahs.1 Atoxoplasma oocysts have been found in the feces of wild Bali mynahs; however, it is unknown whether this disease is contributing to its current decline in the wild.1 Two drugs, sulfachlorpyrazine (Esb3) and toltrazuril (Baycox), are currently being evaluated for their efficacy against this organism. Sulfachlorpyrazine is not absorbed systemically and thus, is only useful in reducing oocyst load in the gastrointestinal tract. Toltrazuril has significantly reduced the mortality of canaries in Europe with systemic atoxoplasmosis. Neither of these drugs are available in the United States but can be obtained through the Bali mynah Species Survival Plan (SSP) veterinary advisor. In a recent study, the Bali mynah Atoxoplasma was reclassified to Isospora rothschildi.2

Literature Cited

1.  Norton TM, Seibels RE, Greiner EC, Latimer KS. Bali mynah captive medical management and reintroduction program. In: AAV Proceedings. 1995:125–136.

2.  Upton SJ, Wilson SC, Norton TM, Greiner EC. (in press). A new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Rothschild’s mynah, Leucopsar rothschildi (Passeriformes: Sturnidae). Systematic Parasitology.


Speaker Information
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Terry M. Norton, DVM, DACZM
Hanes Veterinary Medical Center
North Carolina Zoological Park
Asheboro, NC, USA

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