Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Ceftazidime in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 1997
M. Andrew Stamper1,2; Mark Papich3; Greg Lewbart1,2; Delta Plummer3; Stuart May4; Michael Stoskopf1,2
1Environmental Medicine Consortium, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA; 4North Carolina Aquarium, Atlantic Beach, NC, USA


Antibacterial dosage regimens are poorly established in many reptiles and especially for sea turtles. Ceftazidime is a broad spectrum antimicrobial which is particularly active against gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp. often associated with morbidity and mortality of sea turtles.1-3 This study was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics of a single injection of ceftazidime in yearling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Eight juvenile loggerhead sea turtles weighing 1.25 (±0.18) kg were divided into two groups. Four animals received 20 mg/kg of ceftazidime (Tazidime, Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN) intravenously and four received the same dose intramuscularly. Intravenous doses were given in the left cervical sinus. Intramuscular doses were injected into the left deltoid muscle. Repeated blood sampling was performed at times 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours post-introduction of the drug. Blood collection sites were alternated between right and left cervical sinuses. Blood plasma ceftazidime concentrations were analyzed by reverse-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reverse-phase C-18 column (Waters C-18 NovaPak Radial Compression Cartridge) and a 28% methanol/72% 0.01 M-acetate buffer solution as the mobile phase. Blank (untreated) sea turtle plasma was spiked with known concentrations of ceftazidime and analyzed to determine quality control values. Ceftazidime plasma concentrations were detected at all time points for all turtles and were above the MIC for Pseudomonas as long as 72 hours after the IM and IV injection.

Literature Cited

1.  Aguirre AA, Balazs GH, Zimmerman B, Spraker TR. Evaluation of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) for potential pathogens associated with fibropapillomas. J Wildl Dis. 1994;30:8–15.

2.  Campbell TW. Sea turtle Rehabilitation. In: Mader DR, ed. Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1996:427–435.

3.  Richards DM, Brogen RN. Ceftazidime: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use. Drugs. 1985;29:105–161.


Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

M. Andrew Stamper, DVM
Environmental Medicine Consortium
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC, USA

MAIN : All : Ceftazidime in Loggerhead Sea Turtles
Powered By VIN