Secondary Amyloidosis in a Captive Oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2006
Catalina Hermoza1, DVM; Roberto Elías2, DVM; Javier Mamani2, DVM; Nadia Robert3, DVM, DACVP; Pedro Yi2, DVM
1Parque Zoológico de Huachipa, Lima, Perú; 2Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú; 3Institute of Animal Pathology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland


An adult female oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) bred in a zoo was suspected of having renal insufficiency. The animal died after 7 days of treatment. On physical examination, the animal was depressed, dehydrated, and had ulcers in the oral cavity. The hematologic findings were anemia and leukopenia. The urine results were: pH 6, glucose +, bilirubin +, proteín +++ and blood +++. The serum biochemistry results were: urea 300 mg/dl and creatinine 2.5 mg/dl. At necropsy, both kidneys were enlarged, pale brown, with fine miliary whitish-yellow foci visible on capsular surface. The cut surface had similar miliary foci as well as straight whitish-yellow striations within the deep cortex. The stomach was edematous and hyperemic.

Buffered formalin-fixed tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Congo red (CR). After determination of spiral-shaped structures, the stomach was stained with Warthin-Starry stain. Kidney examination with H&E and CR revealed multifocal deposition of amyloid in the peritubular interstitium associated with tubular coagulative necrosis. The stomach had mild lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic gastritis with intraglandular and intraparietal cell argentophilic spiral-shaped bacteria.

Secondary amyloidosis occurs in a wide variety of domestic2 and wild3,4 animals. It has been associated with chronic inflammation, infection, or neoplasia.5 Chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis was associated with secondary amyloidosis in cheetahs.3 Helicobacter spp. was found in cheetahs and Bengal cats with and without gastritis.1,6 Secondary amyloidosis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in cheetahs, and controlling conditions such as chronic gastritis is recommended.3 This oncilla was diagnosed with secondary amyloidosis associated with mild lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic gastritis with Helicobacter-like organisms.

Literature Cited

1.  Foley, J., S. Marks, L. Munson, A. Melli, F. Dewhirst, S. Yu, Z. Zhen, and J. Fox. 1999. Isolation of Helicobacter canis from a colony of Bengal cats with endemic diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37(10): 3271–3275.

2.  Ménsua, C., M. Carrasco, E. Bautista, A. Biescas, A. Fernández, C. Murphy, T. Weiss, A. Solomon, and L. Lújan. 2003. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats. Vet. Pathol. 40: 71–80.

3.  Pependick, R., L. Munson, T. O’ Brien, and K. Johnson. 1997. Systemic amyloidosis in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Vet. Pathol. 34: 549–556.

4.  Schulze, C., M. Brügmann, M. Böer, H. Brandt, J. Pohlenz, and R. Linke. 1998. Generalized AA-amyloidosis in Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) with predominant renal medullary amyloid deposition. Vet. Pathol. 35: 70–74.

5.  Tan, S., and M. Pepys. 1994. Amyloidosis. Histopathol. 25: 403–414.

6.  Terio, K., L. Munson, L. Marker, B. Aldridge, and V. Solnik. 2005. Comparison of Helicobacter spp. in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with and without gastritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(1): 229–234.


Speaker Information
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Javier Mamani, DVM
Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
Lima, Perú

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