Evaluation of a Semi-Quantitative Lateral Flow Device for Serum Amyloid A in Healthy and Otostrongylus-Infected Juvenile Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2017

Carolyn Cray1, PhD; Cole Kourgelis1, BS; Julie Sheldon2, DVM; Cara Field3, DVM; Shawn Johnson3, DVM, MPVM; Nicole I. Stacy1,4, DVM, Dr med vet, DACVP

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 3The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA, USA; 4Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA


Acute phase proteins have been demonstrated to be valuable tools in the detection of underlying inflammatory processes in numerous species.2 Previously, the diagnostic utility of serum amyloid A (SAA) has been shown in stranded juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris),3 which was measured using an immunoturbidimetric (IT) assay (SAA-1)a that is best implemented at the reference laboratory. The objective of the current study was to examine the diagnostic use of a semi-quantitative commercial lateral flow device (LFD)b to the IT assay.1 Twenty-five samples from healthy animals with a median of 12.1 mg/L SAA (95% CI 3.4–14.4, range 0.1–45.0) all tested within normal limits by LFD (e.g., three lines). Twenty-two samples from animals with clinical signs of Otostrongylus infection and a median IT SAA of 328.0 mg/L reflected either moderate (two lines, n=4) or high (one line, n=18) levels by the LFD. Three samples representing low, moderate, and high SAA levels were subject to repeated measures (n=6) and the results were in agreement by visual assessment. Similar to the SAA-1 reagent, the antibody used in the LFD appears to cross-react well with SAA from the northern elephant seal. Thus, the LFD may provide an opportunity for quick patient side assessment for inflammation. Initial assessment using the LFD device and submission to a reference laboratory for additional quantification using the IT SAA assay is recommended.


aSAA-1, Eiken, Tokyo, Japan
bLFD, OmniChek, Accuplex, Kildare, Ireland


The authors thank the staff and volunteers at the TMMC for collecting and organizing these samples. Authors also thank the laboratory staff at the University of Miami for technical support. All events were performed under the Stranding Agreement between NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) West Coast Region (WCR) and the Marine Mammal Center (TMMC).

Literature Cited

1.  Canisso IF, Ball BA, Cray C, Squires EL, Troedsoon MH. Use of a qualitative horse-side test to measure serum amyloid A in mares with experimentally induced ascending placentitis. J Equine Vet Sci. 2015;35:54–59.

2.  Cray C. Acute phase proteins in animals. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2012;105:113–150.

3.  Sheldon JD, Johnson SP, Hernandez J, Cray C, Stacy NI. Serum amyloid A: an inflammatory marker of Otostrongylus infection in juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in central California. Proc Am Assoc Zoo Vet; 2016:76–77.


Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Carolyn Cray, PhD
Division of Comparative Pathology
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Miller School of Medicine
University of Miami
Miami, FL, USA

MAIN : Aquatics : Semi-Quantitative Lateral Flow Device for Amyloid in Seals
Powered By VIN