A Case Series of Fatal Disseminated Fungal Infection in Captive-Managed Bongo Antelope (Tragelaphus eurycerus)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2019
Michael M. Garner1, DVM, DACVP; Daniel V. Fredholm2, MS, DVM, DACZM; Scott B. Citino2, DVM, DACZM; James F.X. Wellehan, Jr.3, DVM, PhD, DACZM, DACVM (Virology, Bacteriology, Mycology), DECZM (Herpetology); M. Kelly Keating4, DVM, DACVP; Jana M. Ritter4, DVM, DACVP; Shawn Lockhart4, PhD, D(ABMM), F(AAM); Colleen Lysen4; Daniel S. Bradway5, BS
1Northwest ZooPath, Monroe, WA, USA; 2White Oak Conservation, Yulee, FL, USA; 3Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA
Over the span of 6 years, six adult bongo antelope (Tragelaphus eurycerus) from a single institution died without premonitory signs or with brief morbidity and with no historically abnormal medical history. All animals were of the same genetic lineage and in good body condition at the time of death. Gross necropsy findings in all cases included multifocal, tan nodules up to 10 cm in diameter that were most numerous in the heart, lung, and kidneys. Histologic examination identified these nodules as foci of granulomatous inflammation containing branching, septate, broad, undulating fungal elements. Identification of the fungal species was pursued using PCR with sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and culture. Multiple fungal agents were identified using the various modalities, and commonality of species identification was limited to Cladosporium sp. in two of the cases. The overall clinical and pathologic findings in these cases were identical and considered the same infectious disease process. The Cladosporium sp. was considered a candidate as an emerging fatal infectious agent in this population of bongo antelopes. In all animals, death was attributed to conduction abnormalities associated with the cardiac lesions.