Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Treatment and Outcome of 77 Dogs and 137 Cats with Pyometra
M.W.H. Hiew; S.D.Y. Loi
Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterus and is life-threatening to intact female dogs and cats.
This study aimed to determine the clinical signs at presentation, diagnostic methods, treatments and outcomes in bitches and queens with pyometra.
Medical records of 77 bitches and 137 queens presented to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital (UVH), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia with pyometra between 2008 and 2017 were evaluated.
The median age at presentation for bitches was 96 months and 18 months for queens. Most patients experienced estrus more than 4 weeks prior to presentation and were presented more than 7 days after the first clinical sign. The most prominent clinical sign was vaginal discharge (bitches=74.0%; queens=85.4%). Blood parameters showed leukocytosis (bitches=53.2%; queens=35.0%) with neutrophilia and monocytosis. Alkaline phosphatase was seen to be increased in bitches (55.2%). Ultrasonography had higher confirmatory percentages (bitches=93.1%; queens=78.3%) than radiography (bitches=58.7%; queens=72.3%). Ovariohysterectomy with concurrent antibiotics was the treatment of choice in 61% of cases. Postoperative complications occurred in 8.48% of patients. The average length of hospitalization was 4.5 days for bitches and 3.89 days for queens and was associated with decreases in haematocrit (p=0.022) and increases in blood urea nitrogen (p=0.014). Correlation was seen between days before surgery was performed, length of hospitalization and survival of patients (p=0.028).
Clinical signs at presentation, diagnostic methods to confirm pyometra and treatment modalities were similar for bitches and queens. Reduction in time to surgery and hospitalization length could potentially improve patient survival.