A Comparative Analysis of Model Diets Consumed by Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) May Explain Why Some Dolphins Form Ammonium Urate Nephroliths
IAAAM 2016
Amanda J. Ardente1*; Timothy J. Garrett2; Randall S. Wells1,3; Cynthia R. Smith4; Richard C. Hill1
1College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Southeast Center for Integrated Metabolomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Chicago Zoological Society's Sarasota Dolphin Research Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL, USA; 4National Marine Mammal Foundation, Shelter Island Drive, San Diego, CA, USA


Some common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care form ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not.1 Diet may influence urate urolith formation in dolphins as it does in other mammals.2 Both groups of dolphins consume whole fish, but free-ranging dolphins consume a variety of live inshore temperate water species, whereas dolphins under human care are fed cold water species that are frozen and thawed prior to feeding - fish bottlenose dolphins typically would not encounter in the wild. Macronutrient and total purine content were measured in fresh frozen samples of eight fish species commonly consumed by free-ranging dolphins and stored frozen samples of seven species (n = 5) commonly fed to dolphins under human care. Metabolizable energy was calculated using Atwater factors, and dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) was calculated as (Ca2+ + Mg2+ + Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + P1.8- + S2-).3 Crude protein, fat, mineral and water contents differed among species and between species groups, and total purine content was greater in two model diets typically fed to dolphins in human care than in a model free-ranging dolphin diet (p ≤ 0.05). Mean DCAD was positive (94 mEq/Mcal) in the free-ranging model diet, and negative (-70 mEq/Mcal) in both model diets for dolphins under human care. Mean DCAD differed less among model diets if Ca, Mg and P were excluded from the calculation or absorption coefficients were included.4-6 Thus, dolphins under human care may have to excrete more anions, resulting in more acidic urine. These nutrient differences may contribute to ammonium urate nephrolith formation in dolphins managed under human care.


We are grateful for the generous financial support of the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program and SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment, Inc., without which this project would not have been possible.

* Presenting author

Literature Cited

1.  Smith CR, Venn-Watson S, Wells RS, Johnson SP, Maffeo N, Balmer BC, Jensen ED, Townsend FI, Sakhaee K. Comparison of nephrolithiasis prevalence in two bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations. Front Endocrinol. 2013;4:145.

2.  Osborne CA, Lulich JP, Bartges JW, Unger LK, Thumchai R, Koehler LA, Bird KA, Felice LJ. Canine and feline urolithiasis: relationship of etiopathogenesis to treatment and prevention In: Osborne CA, Finco DR, eds. Canine and Feline Nephrology and Urology. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1995:798–888.

3.  Frassetto LA, Todd KM, Morris RC, Sebastian A. Estimation of net endogenous noncarbonic acid production in humans from diet potassium and protein contents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:576–583.

4.  Mack JK, Alexander LG, Morris PJ, Dobenecker B, Kienzle E. Demonstration of uniformity of calcium absorption in adult dogs and cats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2015;99:801–809.

5.  Block E. Manipulation of dietary cation-anion difference on nutritionally related production diseases, productivity, and metabolic responses of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 1994;77:1437–1450.

6.  Remer T, Manz F. Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:791–797.


Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Amanda J. Ardente, DVM
College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL, USA

MAIN : Marine Mammals : Comparative Analysis of Model Dolphin Diets
Powered By VIN