Successful Treatment of Sepsis Using Combined Intravenous and Oral Administration of Antibiotics in a Zebra Bullhead Shark (Heterodontus zebra) at the S.E.A. Aquarium, RWS: A Case Report
A juvenile, captive, male zebra bullhead shark (Heterodontus zebra) at the S.E.A. Aquarium, Resorts World Sentosa (RWS) in Singapore was observed to be emaciated, dehydrated, and lethargic on 28 May, 2013. There were diffuse, petechial hemorrhages on the ventral surface of the body and pectoral fins; and markedly red discoloration around cloacal area. Blood collected from the caudal vein revealed leukocytosis. Ceftriaxone, at 30 mg kg-1 slow IV q72h (with 5 ml of elasmobranch-balanced salt solution) x 5D, was administered. Commercially prepared feed (Mazuri® Shark/Ray meal 5D2Q) was given daily via feeding tube with enrofloxacin, at 10 mg kg-1 PO x 7D. After treatment with enrofloxacin, the shark was tube fed with 20 ml of blended food BID x 10D. The animal started to feed on its own at 21 days. However, blood results revealed anemia. Oral iron supplementation was administered to correct anemia. Full recovery (i.e., absence of cutaneous hemorrhages, and normal packed cell volume and total WBC) was observed at 45 days.