Absence of Acute Toxicity of a Single Intramuscular Injection of Meloxicam in Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)
Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity, frequently used in veterinary medicine, including in fish species. However, the efficacy and safety of meloxicam has not yet been reported in adult fish. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a single intramuscular injection of meloxicam in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) was associated with acute toxicity. After 3 wk of acclimation, 32 goldfish were randomly assigned into two groups of 16 individuals. Fish in the treatment group received a single intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg of meloxicam (Metacam® 5 mg/ml, Boehringer Ingelheim Canada Ltée, Burlington, ON, Canada). Fish in the control group received a single intramuscular injection of NaCl 0.9% using a similar volume (1 ml/kg). Fish were monitored for external lesions, mortality, level of activity and position in the water column. No lesions, mortality or modification in the behavior or position were noted. Fish were euthanized with an overdose of tricaine methanesulfonate (Aqualife TMS, Syndel Laboratories Ltd., Nanaimo, BC, Canada) three days after the initial injection. A complete macroscopic and microscopic examination was performed on each fish. Hemorrhage and necrosis were identified at the injection sites in fish from the treatment and the control groups. Multi-organs granulomas of undetermined etiology were detected in fish from both groups. No statistically significant differences were detected in regards to the lesions observed in the two groups. This study indicates that a single intramuscular injection of meloxicam at 5 mg/kg does not induce acute toxicity in goldfish.
This research has been completed thanks to the fundings of the Fonds en santé des animaux de compagnie from the Université de Montréal and the Bourse du Zoo de Granby en santé de la faune.