Cor Pulmonale in Dogs with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Case Series (2009–2013)
Cor pulmonale is characterized by the radiographic and/or echocardiographic evidence of right ventricular overload, in the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), caused by respiratory diseases.
To describe cases of dogs diagnosed with cor pulmonale in the presence of PAH not related to heart disease.
A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and December 2013, by reviewing records of dogs admitted to the cardiology service of a veterinary teaching hospital.
A total of 24 records were obtained in this period. Nine were excluded because of inadequate completion of clinical records (5) or PAH presence without any apparent respiratory cause (4), resulting in a total of 15 patients with cor pulmonale. The main cause of PAH was bronchitis (26.66%) followed by bronchopneumonia, pneumonia, pulmonary neoplasia and anterior airway obstruction (13.34% each), one case of pulmonary fibrosis (6.66%), pulmonary fibrosis associated to pneumonia (6.66%) and one of reversible PAH after hemoparasitosis treatment (6.66%). There were 66.67% females, 60% were pure breed (Lhasa apso 20%, followed by Yorkshire, Bulldog, Pitbull, German shepherd, Poodle and West Highland White Terrier, with 6.66% each) and 40% were mixed-breed/mongrel. Age varied from 4 to 16 years (10.87 ± 3.04 years). From all patients, 80% required prescription of sildenafil, besides treatment of primary respiratory disease due to moderate or important PAH.
Several respiratory conditions were involved in PAH with resulting cor pulmonale in dogs, with bronchitis as the most common cause and a predominance of females over male dogs.