Successful Resolution of Adenomyosis Associated with Recurrent Anemia and Collapse in a Southern Three Banded Armadillo (Toplypeutes matacus)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2011
Judilee C. Marrow1, DVM; Nancy Boedeker1, DVM; Tabitha C. Viner2,3, DVM, DACVP; Suzan Murray1, DVM, DACZM
1Department of Animal Health, Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA; 3National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Ashland, OR, USA


A 10-year-old, nulliparous, female southern three banded armadillo (Tolypeutes matacus) with a history of episodes of weakness and mild anemia, was presented for acute collapse. On ultrasound, a 3x3 cm heterogeneous mass was noted caudodorsal to the urinary bladder. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an enlarged, firm uterus, and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Histopathology of the uterus revealed irregular, well-differentiated glands extending to a regular, finite, and visually-defined depth into the myometrium, and occasional hemorrhage within these glands. Microscopic findings were consistent with adenomyosis.

Adenomyosis is a common condition of multiparous women and has occasionally been reported in domestic and non-domestic species.1-6 Clinical signs in women include dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, which may correlate with the clinical signs of recurrent mild anemia and collapse seen in this armadillo. These episodes of anemia and collapse resolved after ovariohysterectomy and the animal has remained clinically normal for 1.5 years post surgery.

Literature Cited

1.  Bulman-Fleming, J. 2008. A rare case of uterine adenomyosis in a Siamese cat. Can Vet J 49:709–712.

2.  Done, L, Deem, S, and C. Fiorello. 2007. Surgical and medical management of a uterine spindle cell tumor in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) J Zoo Wildl Med 38:601–603.

3.  Ferenczy, A. 1998. Pathophysiology of adenomyosis. Hum Reprod Update 4:312–322.

4.  Grahm K, Hulst F, Vogelnest L, Fraser I, and C. Shilton. 2009. Uterine adenomyosis in an orangutan (Pongo abelii/pygmaeus). Aust Vet J 87:66–69.

5.  Newell-Fugate, A. and E. Lane. 2009. Intrapartum uterine rupture with coincidental uterine adenomyosis in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). J Zoo Wildl Med 40:791–795.

6.  Tamada, H., N. Kawate, T. Inaba, M. Kuwamura, M. Maeda, T. Kajikawa, and T. Sawada. 2005. Adenomyosis with severe inflammation in the uterine cervix in a dog. Can Vet J. 46:333–334.


Speaker Information
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Judilee C. Marrow, DVM
Department of Animal Health
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
Washington DC, USA

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