Collection and Analysis of Semen from Goeldi’s Monkey (Callimico goeldii)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2011

Paloma Rocha Arakaki1, DVM; Fernanda Maria de Carvalho2, DVM; Paulo Henrique de Souza Castro3, DVM, MSc; José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz3, DVM, MSc, PhD; Rodrigo del Rio do Valle4, DVM, MSc, PhD

1Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil; 3Centro Nacional de Primatas, Ananindeua, PA, Brazil; 4Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil


Deforestation, fragmentation, and the black-market wild-animal trade contribute to reduce the size of wild populations of neotropical primates. To avoid the loss of their genetic material, it is necessary to develop assisted reproductive techniques.5 Basic knowledge on semen characteristics is essential to achieve this goal. Callimico goeldii is a neotropical primate that occurs in Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil.2 To our knowledge, there are no reports on semen collection for this species. Semen from six sexually mature captive Goeldi’s monkeys was collected by rectal probe electroejaculation.4 Semen was diluted in coconut water in natura extender1 immediately after collection. Coagulum formation was noted in all ejaculates and some samples had an amber coloration. It is not known if these are characteristics of the species or a consequence of the collection method. All analyses were done after 30 minutes from dilution, except for pH which was done using fresh semen. This allowed partial or total dissolution of the coagulum. Results were (mean±SD): volume 27.91±11.75 μl; pH 7.52±0.27; concentration 176±271 x 106 spermatozoa/ml; total motility 38±44%; linear progressive motility 25±32%; plasma membrane integrity (eosin-nigrosin stain)4,5 39±15%; and acrosome integrity using simple acrosome stain3,5 61±6%, or commercial kit Spermac® (Stain Enterprises, P.O. Box 12421, 0110, Onderstepoort, South Africa)5 65±9%. We could conclude further investigation may be required to improve semen collection and handling (for example, methods to better dissolve the coagulum).


The authors would like to thank the Andrology Lab at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo (FMVZ, USP) and the National Primate Center (CENP), Ministry of Health for their technical and financial support.

Literature Cited

1.  Araújo LL, Lima JS, Oliveira KG, Muniz JAPC, Valle RR, Domingues SFS. Uso de solução à base de água de coco a 37°C como diluidor de sêmen de Cebus apella (macaco prego) mantido em cativeiro. Ciência Animal Brasileira. 2009;10(2):588–594.

2.  Hershkovitz P. Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press; 1977: 892–896.

3.  Pope CE, Zhang YZ, Dresser BL. A simple staining method for evaluating acrosomal status of cat spermatozoa. J Zoo Wildl Med. 1991;22:87–95.

4.  Valle RR, Guimarães MABV, Muniz JAPC, Barnabe RC, Vale WG. Collection and evaluation of semen from captive howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya). Theriogenology. 2004;62:131–138.

5.  Valle RR, Valle CMR, Nichi M, Muniz JAPC, Nayudu PL, Guimarães MABV. Validation of non-fluorescent methods to reliably detect acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) sperm. Theriogenology. 2008;70:115–120.


Speaker Information
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Fernanda Maria de Carvalho, DVM
Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias
Universidade Estadual Paulista
Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil

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