D. Saez; M. Emparanza
The purpose of the present study was to carry out the echographic characterization of the adrenal glands by means of the ultrasonographic exam in normal dogs. Dogs without signs of adrenal disease, that is, polyuria, polydipsia, signs of cutaneous disease or muscular atrophy and with corporal condition 3/5 were included. A total of 66 dogs were included in the study. Size, forms and echogenicity of each gland was described. The measurements included: length, higher diameter and lower diameter. Additionally, renal length, and aortic diameter as well as the body weight were measured. Correlate between glands measurements with aortic diameter, length of the corresponding kidney and body weight were established. 27 breeds were included. Of these, 35 (53%) were male and 31 (46%) female with a body weight between 1,5 and 53 kilograms. 44 (66.7%) of the left adrenal glands (LAG) described their classic bilobed shape with a marked central constriction. The remaining LAG showed other shapes including: elongated with uniform diameter, elongated with discreet central constriction and enlarged in one of their poles. 40 (60.6%) of the right adrenal glands (RAG) showed their classic uniform elongated shape. The remaining RAG showed other shapes including: bilobed with central constriction, elongated with decrease in diameter on one of their poles and enlarged in one of their poles. In 52 (78.8%) and 59 (89%) of the RAG and LAG respectively, echogenicity was homogeneously hypoechoic while in the 14 (21.2%) and 7 (10.6%) remaining it was possible to observe cortex and medula. The RAG length, higher and lower diameter average was 2.03 ± 0.5, 0.48 ± 0.08 and 0.34 ± 0.09 cm. respectively. The LAG length, higher and lower diameter average was 2.12 ± 0.53, 0.49 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08 cm. respectively. Significant correlation (r > 0.74, p < 0.05) were established between LAG length and body weight, left kidney length and aortic diameter. The correlation coefficient between both glands was of 0.74 (p < 0.05). The existence of correlations between the LAG length and body weight, left kidney length and aortic diameter could help in prediction of the normal length. The diameter of the gland adrenal would have a low variation between the different races and weights of dogs.