Short-Coated Breeds Folliculitis. Most Common Causes
A. Blanco; G.C. Broglia; M. Duarte; D. Scavone; A. Wolberg
Dermatology Service of the Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires. Argentina
Folliculitis is a very common disease in short-coated breed dogs. Due to its multifactorial etiology and the high incidence of relapsing episodes, pyoderma is a real challenge for the practitioner. In its early stage, lesions consist of papules and pustules associated with the hair follicle, with hair protruding from the middle of the lesion (this is not usually seen in Shar pei dogs) in the rear. Afterwards it is common to see multifocal areas of hyperpigmentation and mouth-eaten alopecia or epidermal collarettes. The objective of this study is to determine the most important causes of folliculitis in dogs. A revision of 39 cases of folliculitis in short-coated breeds dogs assisting the Dermatology Service of the Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires during 2007-2008 was carried out. Seventeen of them were males (43.6%) and twenty two, females (56.4%). The age of presentation ranged between 6 months and 9 years of age with an average of 2,5 years. The affected breeds were: 8 Mongrels (20.5%), 6 Shar pei (15.4%), 5 Boxer (12.8%), 4 Doberman (10.25%) and 3 Dogo argentino (7.7%). In all the patients, after an exhaustive clinical evaluation, deep skin scrapings were performed in order to rule out demodicosis. Skin biopsy samples were taken in dogs with negative skin scrapings for histopathologic examination. Seventeen out of 39 patients examined showed Demodex canis in the skin scrapings. Histopathological findings showed the definitive diagnosis in other dogs: 11 cases of hypersensitivity (28.2%), 3 of color dilution alopecia (7.7%), 2 of superficial pyoderma (5.1%), 2 endocrine disease (5.1%), 1 follicular dysplasia (2.6%), 1 sebaceous adenitis (2.6%), 1 furunculosis (2.6%) and 1 dermatophytosis (2.6%).
Most of the patients (32/39, 82%) were younger than 3 years old.
Skin scraping, a simple and economic diagnostic method was successful in achieving the diagnosis in almost 50% of the patients.
Histopathology is an invaluable diagnostic tool in dermatologic evaluation.