Association of Hip Dysplasia with Cauda Equina Syndrome in Dogs--27 Cases Report
E.A. Tudury; F.P. Araújo; M.L. Figueiredo; B. Figueiredo; N.B. Marques; R. Chioratto; T.H.T. Fernandes; L.P. Gonçalves
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) consists of a common orthopedic affection in dogs, especially among large and giant breeds. The cauda equina syndrome (CES) is the group of signs and symptoms generated by an (usually compressive) injury at the cauda equina. We did not find any data in the revised literature about a frequent association of CHD and CES in dogs. The clinical record of 97 dogs with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of CHD was analyzed retrospectively. Among these, 27 patients were selected because they had a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of CHD, along with CES. The patients were divided in 4 distinct groups according to the type of therapy used for both diseases: Group 1--Animals submitted to exclusively non-simultaneous surgical management (laminectomy + denervation in sternal recumbency) (n = 5). Group 2--Animals submitted to exclusively surgical management, being the hip and lumbosacral joints operated on simultaneously (n = 8). Group 3--Animals submitted to surgical management of the CHD and clinical management of the CES (n = 9). Group 4--Animals submitted exclusively to clinical therapy for both diseases (n = 7). In a total of 97 patients with hip dysplasia, 27 (27,83%) showed signs of concurrent cauda equina syndrome. Among these, 25,92% were Rottweiler (n = 7), 14,82% were German Shepherd, undefined breed and Labrador (n = 4), 7,41% were Poodle (n = 2), 11,11% (n = 3) were Brazilian Fila and 3,70% (n = 1), were Pinscher, Belgium Shepherd and Sheep dog. The researched literature reports that in large breed dogs, CES occurs later in life (in average at 7 years). Although, in this study, we found that 56,3% of the patients had an age below 5 years, and 7 of these were 1 year old or younger. The frequency of 27,83% of dogs which presented CHD along with clinical signs of CES is statistically significant, prompting the necessity for an accurate semiologic approach in all patients with suspected CHD, so that the CES may be diagnosed and treated simultaneously. For dogs which present the association of CHD and clinical signs, the simultaneous surgical therapy was the best therapeutic conduct, seeing that not only does it provide simultaneous relief of pain with an earlier return of function, but it avoids the owner's refusal to perform a second surgical procedure.