A.S. Corrêa; P.H.S. Maia; R.H.F.P.M. Bittencourt; M.C. Silva
With the progress of the veterinary medicine the specialties appeared, among the ones which, the dentistry that occupies prominence place, visa to be an area in ascension and of high potential in the great urban centers, where the demand of pet increases progressively. This contingent needs specific cares more and more, still getting better more life quality (Isogai et al., 1989; Harvey & Emily, 1993; Lund et al., 1999; Freeman et al., 2006). In rising accomplished in the United States with 31,484 dogs was evidenced that only 7% of the dogs came healthy, and the oral cavity represented the ranch of larger diseases prevalence (Lund et al., 1999). Countless they are the diseases that attack the oral cavity of dogs and cats, among another stand out, the bacterial plaque, the dental calculus, the decay, the gingivitis, the disease periodontal, the persistent deciduous teething, the dental fractures and of jaw, the neoplasm, the lesion of dental resorption of the felines and the compound gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis of the cats. Gioso (1993) it described that the bacterial plate is a viscous material, yellow that is formed on the dental enamel, while Dupont (1997) referred her as a biofilm, largely constituted by bacteria that appear inside of some hours after the complete cleaning of the surface of the tooth and Emily et al. (1999) they considered it as dental plaque, being a dense mass no calcified, structured and resistant. The dental calculus is evident, and comes as a hard mass in the dental surface intrasulcular or extrasulcular, of coloration yellowish, brownish, sometimes greenish, being observed more frequently in the teeth fourth superior premolar (butcher) and first superior molar (Gioso, 2003). The bacteria through metabolism produce by-products capable to harm the structures periodontal, being the gum the first harmed structure which answers to the aggression with inflammation and, as in this stage there still was not bone lesion, the disease periodontal is characterized as gingivitis, which can be reversible removing the irritating agent (Gioso, 1997). In agreement with Hirakata (1993), the dental decay is constituted in the main source of contamination of the tissue pulpar and of the periodonto apical. According to Gioso (2003) it is the process of demineralization of the enamel, dentine or cementum provoked by bacteria and their acid by-products. The hyperplasia gingival represents an answer benign proliferate of the tissue connective gingival and epithelium suprajacent, to the gingivitis or chronic periodontitis. Probably she originates from attempt of the organism in rebuilding the architecture of the tissue, outdated for mechanical obstacle (dental calculus) impeding the normal arrangement (Filetti et al., 2000; Jones, 2000). The diseases periodontal result of progressive inflammatory answer of the host to the accumulation of bacterial plaque, including their metabolites in the tooth and in the tissue gingival (Harvey & Emily, 1993). This includes the tissue gingival, the cementum, the ligament periodontal and the alveolar bone in other words it includes the calls gingivitis and periodontitis (Dillon, 1984; Gioso, 1993; Harvey & Emily, 1993; Penman & Harvey, 1993). Given the great variety in size and function of the teeth, as well as the degree of abrasion of the diet on the tooth and of his action in the gum, the disease periodontal in dogs attacks, more frequently, certain group of animals and different areas of the mouth (Harvey & Emily, 1993). Studies prove that great part of the dogs above three years of age already presents clinical signs of disease periodontal (Gorrel, 1995), and that more than 80% of the dogs above five years possess periodontitis (Sarkiala et al., 1993). Important to highlight, that it is treated of considered disease one of the more common of the oral cavity of those animals (Harvey & Emily, 1993). According to Okuda & Harvey (1994) and Gioso (2007), besides the disease periodontal, two diseases still worry the community veterinary odontological, as being the lesion of dental resorption of the felines (LRDF) and the compound gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis of the cats (CGSP), diseases of causes still no well defined. De agreement Harvey & Emily (1993) and Okuda & Harvey (1994), the lesion of dental resorption of the felines is characterized by enamel defects, dentine and of cementum, preferentially in the cervical area of the teeth, where the resorption expresses can happen under or even in the margin of the gum and usually, it is accompanied by intense inflammation of the tissue gingival. Of agreement Mitchell (2004), one of the most frustrating oral diseases of cats is the compound gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis of the felines is, known by many names, included lymphocytic plasmocytic stomatitis (LPS). According to Roza (2004), CGSP is a severe oral illness with etiology related to processes infectious or immunological, with exact mechanism still unknown and that begins as an allergic plate around of the teeth with outstanding lawsuit that result in chronic lesions. The persistent deciduous teething is to permanencies of the temporary teeth besides the seven months of age in the dogs and of six months in the cats, where it is rare. He happens frequently in the dogs of races of small load and miniature, where the canine teeth and incisors are more frequently kept, in the case of the persistence of the teeth deciduous canine inferior, the permanent tooth can to come outside in the middle, in anomalous position, causing lesions in the palate (Gioso, 2003). The fractures of the dental elements are common in the dogs and cats, although occurrence can vary according to the activity degree and use of the teeth for the animal. The teeth more commonly affected they are the canine teeth, the fourth superior premolar and the incisors (Harvey & Emily, 1993). In the dogs, the fracture of the fourth superior premolar causes a syndrome known as "Fistula of the Butcher" (Léon-Roman & Gioso, 2002). In cats, the fistula occurrence below the eye it is not common, being associated, most of the time, to the canine tooth (Holmstrom, 1992). According to Harvey and Emily (1993), jaw fractures and jawbone are common in dogs and cats attacking about 3 to 6% of all the fractures most of the fractures in the dogs attacks, the area of the body of the jaw and, in the cats, the intermandibular joint. According to Gioso, (2003) in the dogs of small load the fractures can be commonly in the area of the first inferior molar, due to the disease serious periodontal, that it provokes great loss of bone substance. In agreement with Maretta et al. (1990), the oral cavity is the ranch of 5.4% of the evil neoplasm in the dogs and of 6.7% of the in the cats. The evil melanoma among the oral neoplasm is it more frequently found in dogs and cats, representing the neoplasm oropharyngeal more commonly pointed in some studies (Couto, 1992; Damasceno & Araújo, 2004). The objective of the work was to verify the occurrence of oral disease in dogs (Canis familiares) and cats (Felis catus) assisted at a clinic located veterinary odontological in the metropolitan area of Belém-Pará-Brazil.
Materials and Methods
The study based on the rising of 2.168 records clinics of dogs and cats attacked by oral diseases, assisted at Clinic Veterinary Odontological during the period of July from 2006 to July of 2008. The clinical records were analyzed considering the animal species, race and disease type. The results were appraised through the observation in percentile.
In the appraised period, 1,821 dogs and 347 cats were assisted with diseases in the oral cavity. Among the dogs, the one of the races Poodle (28.99% of the animals) and of Yorkshire Terrier (28.28% of the animals) they were the ones that presented larger occurrence of oral disease. Smaller occurrence was observed in the animals of the races Lhasa Apso (10.26%), Maltese (8.12%), Shihtzu (6.86%), Schnauzer (4.06%) and without defined race (WDR) (3.56%). among the 347 cats that presented oral disease, WDR were the ones that presented the largest occurrence of oral disease (41.21%), following for the cats of the Persian races (31.41%) and Siamese (26.8%). Of the oral disease in the dogs and cats, the gingivitis attacked 35.5% of the dogs and 28.7% of the cats, following for disease general periodontal in 35% of the dogs and 29% of the cats, it fractures dental in 12.4% of the dogs and 4% of the cats and the fracture of the stomatognathic system in 1,5% of the dogs and 2.2% of the cats. Still, only in the dogs the persistence of deciduous teeth attacked 15.6% of the animals and in the cats LRDF happened in 26.3% of the animals and CGSP in 9.2% of the cats. Among the dogs attacked by fracture in the stomatognathic system 85.5% presented fracture in bitten area of the jaw and 14.5% in jawbone, while in the cats, the largest occurrence was of symphysis rupture (45% of the cases of trauma), following for the fracture of the horizontal body of the jaw (25%), condylar fracture (15%), it fractures of coronoid process (10%) and jawbone fracture (5%).
Discussion and Conclusions
Dogs of the races Poodle and Yorkshire Terrier were what more presented oral disease, while among the races of cats, the one of the Persian and Siamese they were the more attacked. With respect to the animals WDR, the one of the feline species were the ones that presented larger occurrence of oral disease. It is believed that these results are due to the fact of the population of dogs to be larger than the one of cats in the city of Belém, and still for the people's fact to look for pedigree dogs to have them as pet, different situation happens with the cats. The found results are similar to those referred by Venturini (2006), where 407 (17.7%) dogs of the race poodle presented oral disease, while 251 (10.9%) animals WDR were attacked by the same problem. The felines, without defined race those that more presented oral diseases were likely. The oral disease of larger occurrence in the dogs was the gingivitis, while in the cats, the occurrence was of disease general periodontal. The found results differed of the referred by Venturini (2006), that it observed 71.4% of dogs and 74% of cats presenting some gingivitis degree. The persistence of deciduous teeth happened in 15.6% of the dogs and in any cat, what contradicts reports of Venturini (2006) that in accomplished studies, it observed that 588 cats presented this disease. The percentile of dental fracture in dogs and in cats, in the present work, it differed of the percentile found by Gioso (2000) and for Venturini (2006). The largest fracture occurrence in the stomatognathic system, in dogs, was in the bitten area of the jaw, while in the cats the largest occurrence was of symphysis rupture. Harvey and Emily (1993) referred to the largest frequency happening in jaw of dogs and in symphysis of the cats. In the present work, the occurrence of LROF was significant corroborating with reports of Frost and William (1986) that LRDF is the most frequent disease in the cats, after the disease periodontal. CGSP of the felines was one of the diseases of smaller occurrence, contradicting, therefore, referred him by those same authors, that CGSP is the second more frequent disease in this species. Only the carcinoma epidermoid in dog and in cat it was observed in the animals of the study.
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