Advanced Technologies and Methodologies in Diagnosis and Treatment of Endodontic Disease in California Sea Lions
Four California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with advanced dental disease were diagnosed under voluntary control using new technologies including the Nomad (Aribex, Inc., 744 South 400 East, Orem, UT 84097 USA) handheld portable x-ray machine and EDR5 (Eklin Medical systems, Inc., 532 Weddell Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 USA) digital radiography. In one sea lion under general anesthesia, CT was utilized to further characterize the endondontic and periodontal lesions. Restoration of incisor, canine, and post-canine dentition was performed under anesthesia with new methods that included a customized endodontic condensing instrument, performing YSGG Laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase Technology, Inc., 4 Cromwell, Irvine, CA 92618 USA) mediated sterilization of the root canal, filling apical osseous and endodontic defects with Consil (Nutramax Laboratories, Inc., 2208 Lakeside Boulevard, Edgewook, MD 21040 USA) synthetic particulate bone graft material, and sealing and filling the interior of the endodontic canal with EndoREZ (Ultradent Products, Inc., 505 W. 10200 S., South Jordan, UT 84095 USA). The coronal portion of the tusk was restored with Herculite XRV (Kerr Corporation, 1717 West Collins, Orange, CA 92867 USA) hybrid dental resin composite material that was polymerized with a plasma arc Demetronf curing light unit. In two animals, follow-up radiographs taken at 3 and 9 mo after completion of restoration, showed continued healing and successful repair of the diseased dentition. With these new instruments and techniques, we were able to successfully diagnosis and restore California sea lion teeth that would have typically been extracted in the past.
We thank our colleagues at the Navy Marine Mammal Program: Cynthia Smith, Stephen Cassle, Nate Daughenbaugh, and Sam Ridgway for their assistance with treatment and care of the animals. The U.S. Army Animal Care Specialists and Trainers were crucial in the implementation and execution of the procedures.