Evaluation of Clinical and Pathologic Side Effects of Pneumocystography in Dogs
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2004
Mashhady Rafie, Siamak, Bahar, Morad
Department of Clinical Science, Sciences and Research Campus of Azad Islamic University, Tehran, Iran


The urinary bladder is a hallow organ located in the caudal abdomen.

It varies in size and position, depending on the amount of urine it contains the most common indications for contrast studies of the bladder are hematuria and difficulty in or frequency of micturition. Various techniques are available to outline the bladder include pneumocystography, positive contrast cystography and double contrast cystography.

Materials and methods

10 male dogs were selected for this study. Air at a dosage of 6 to 12 ml/kg body weight was injected in to the bladder through a catheter, a three-way stopcock, and a large syringe. The procedure carried out with the animal in left lateral recumbency to reduce the danger of embolism. The degree of filling was monitored by abdominal palpation. Then radiography was performed for examination of bladder wall and controlling and comparison of possible side effects after entrance of air we waited 20 minutes and then removed the catheter and allow to exit air from the bladder.

For 7 days the clinical signs were recorded and blood samples obtained for CBC too. In 8th day a urine samples were obtained for bacterial culture and then another pneumocystography was performed. Dogs were euthanatized finally.


Although there were not any obvious clinical signs after pneumocystography but macroscopic findings in gross pathology include congestion and ecchymosis in submucosal tissues of bladder and urethra.

Histopathologic evaluation revealed edema, congestion, ecchymosis, hemorrhage and detachment of mucosa and infiltration of lymphocytes under the mucosa of bladder. There were mild congestion and occasionally degenerative changes in mucosa of urethra.


Although these procedures were performed under aseptic ways and no bacteria was not cultured, we can say that pressure of air in the bladder during 20 minutes could induced pathologic changes in wall of bladder.


1.  Kealy, J. K. (1987):Diagnostic radiology of the dog and cat. W. B. Saunders. pp 130-137

2.  Mccurnin, D.etal(1991): small animal physical diagnosis and clinical procedures. W. B. Saunders pp75-81

3.  Mccurnin, D.etal(1991): small animal physical diagnosis and clinical procedures. W. B. Saunders pp154-156

Speaker Information
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Siamak Mashhady Rafie
Department of Clinical Science
Sciences and Research Campus of Azad Islamic University
Tehran, Iran

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