Assessment of the Campbell Behaviour Test for Puppies of Several Canine Breeds
*Rocio López-Rodríguez, Joaquín Pérez-Guisado, Andrés Muñoz, Eva Mª Martín-Suárez, Jose Mª Molleda-Carbonell
The aim of the study is to assess the following matters:
1. If the approach of Campbell for the classification of puppies is the most accurate and feasible.
2. If it is true that the puppies have a marked tendency towards dominance with this behaviour test, according to some authors.
3. If the dogs may have some tendency to independence from people.
4. If all the five parts of the test are different and what characterize one from each other.
5. If there is a relation between the level of dominance-submission of the puppy and different factors like breed, sex, interaction sex-breed, and litter within breed.
6. If a bad socialization of the puppy has a negative influence on the realization of the test and which is the most obvious part to detect puppies with a defective socialization
We have performed the Campbell test in 187 puppies (103 males, 84 females) of different breeds, 6-8 weeks aged.
For the statistical study (a variance analysis and the Duncan´s test), we have assigned to each part of the test a system of scoring from 0 to 4, giving value 4 to the response of great dominance (a), value 3 to the response of dominance (b), value 2 to the response of balanced submission (c), value 1 to the response of excessive submission (d), and value 0 to the response of independence or excessive fear. The higher the mean value is, the more dominant the puppy is.
Whit the proposed score, the total mean is balanced submission; for males the value is between dominance and balanced submission, and for females is between balanced submission and excessive submission.
The responses of independence in accurately socialized dogs are rare, in contrast with dogs with deficient socialization to people, which tend to achieve a high value in parts 1, 2 and 4 of the test.
The proposed procedure in this study, consisting in giving numeric values to the different types of response, is an accurate and quick way to comprise the tendencies of dominance-submission of every kind of puppy, thus every puppy can be classified.
The general mean value of the dogs, independently of sex and breed, is of balanced submission, and males are more dominant than females