Radiographic Study on Bone Maturation of Distal Limbs in Asian Elephants
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2003
Wutthiwong Theerapan and Phiwipha Kamonrat
Veterinary Surgery, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok, Thailand


To establish a guideline to assess bone maturation and determine physeal closure time of distal limbs in Asian elephants

Materials & Methods

Latitudinal radiographic evaluation of bone maturation of left distal radius, ulna, tibia and fibula was performed in 35 healthy Asian elephants, aged from newborn to 30 years. The development of the secondary ossification centers and their fusion to the diaphyses were graded as follow : grade 0 = no secondary ossification center present ; grade 1 and 2 = the secondary ossification center occupy < 50% and 50100% of the width of the metaphyses, respectively ; grade 3 = the distance between the secondary ossification center and the metaphysis begins to diminish ; grade 4 and 5 = the physes are <50% and 50-100% closed, respectively ; grade 6 = <50% of the physeal line remains.

Results and Conclusion

The secondary ossification centers of distal radius, ulna and tibia were present at newborn, but that of the distal fibula appeared later. Of the ossification centers studied, the fibula began to fuse first, followed by tibia and both radius and ulna, respectively. The bone maturation of the distal fibula was complete at 25 years. All physes of the distal limbs studied were completely closed in the 30 -year- old elephant.

Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Wutthiwong Theerapan
Veterinary Surgery, Chulalongkorn University
Patumwan, Bangkok, Thailand

MAIN : Special Species : Bone Maturation: Elephants
Powered By VIN

Friendly Reminder to Our Colleagues: Use of VIN content is limited to personal reference by VIN members. No portion of any VIN content may be copied or distributed without the expressed written permission of VIN.

Clinicians are reminded that you are ultimately responsible for the care of your patients. Any content that concerns treatment of your cases should be deemed recommendations by colleagues for you to consider in your case management decisions. Dosages should be confirmed prior to dispensing medications unfamiliar to you. To better understand the origins and logic behind these policies, and to discuss them with your colleagues, click here.

Images posted by VIN community members and displayed via VIN should not be considered of diagnostic quality and the ultimate interpretation of the images lies with the attending clinician. Suggestions, discussions and interpretation related to posted images are only that -- suggestions and recommendations which may be based upon less than diagnostic quality information.


777 W. Covell Blvd., Davis, CA 95616


  • Toll Free: 800-700-4636
  • From UK: 01-45-222-6154
  • From anywhere: (1)-530-756-4881
  • From Australia: 02-6145-2357