The main objective of this study was to study small animal practice in Iran the past and present. The data has been provided by the Iranian Veterinary Organization, and individual or specialized clinics in seven major cities, for three periods of time: 1) from 1970 to 1978 (before the revolution); 2) from 1979 till 1989 (after the revolution to the end of Iran-Iraq war), and 3) from 1990 to 2000. In period 1, there were six clinics in Tehran and only one in each of the three cities, Ahwaz, Shiraz, and Uromieh. Average daily referral cases for each of the clinics were thirty for Tehran and seven for the other cities. Pet keeping became a sign of aristocracy during period 2, and therefore, interest in it declined drastically. All of the clinics except two in Tehran and one in Shiraz were closed, and the referral cases declined to two or three per week. Period three is represented by a gradual increase (compared to period 2) in both of the number of clinics (n=49) and their average daily referral cases (5 for clinics in Tehran and 3 for the other six cities). Two factors might have contributed to these findings: a) foundation of the residency courses in Small Animal Internal Medicine and Surgery in Tehran University in 1995, and b) a positive attitude toward pet keeping. The future of small animal practice in Iran looks promising due to availability of better veterinary service and a rapid increase in pet keeping.