Cardiopulmonary and Anesthetic Effects of Medetomidine-Ketamine-Butorphanol and Antagonism With Atipamezole in Servals (Felis serval)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 1998
Jennifer N. Erdtmann1, DVM; Juergen Schumacher1, Dr. med. vet.; Christal Pollock1, DVM; Susan E. Orosz1, PhD, DVM; Mike P. Jones1, DVM, DABVP, Avian Practice; Ralph C. Harvey2, DVM, DACVA
1Departments of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 2Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
Seven (three male, four female) 4- to 7-year-old captive servals (Felis serval), weighing 13.7±2.3 kg (mean ± SD), were used to evaluate the cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of i.m. medetomidine (47.4±10.3 µg/kg), ketamine (1.0±0.2 mg/kg), and butorphanol (0.2±0.03 mg/kg). Inductions were smooth and rapid (11.7±4.3 minutes) and resulted in good muscle relaxation. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in heart rate (85±12 beats/minutes) at 10 minutes and in respiratory rate (27±10 breaths/minutes) at 5 minutes was present following induction and continued throughout the immobilization period. No significant changes in rectal body temperature or arterial blood pressure were seen during the anesthetic event. Arterial blood gas analysis, performed at 1, 15, and 30 minutes after induction, showed PaO2 decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly during immobilization. Changes were within clinically acceptable limits. No periods of hypoxemia (PO2<60 mm Hg) were noted. Arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) was greater than 90% at all times. Relative arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) values, indicated by pulse oximetry, were lower than SaO2 values. All animals could be safely handled while sedated. Administration of the α2- antagonist, atipamezole (236.8±51.2 µg/kg half IV and half SC), resulted in rapid (4.1±3 minutes to standing) and smooth recoveries. At the dosage used in this study the combination of medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol was effective for immobilizing captive servals.