The U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service–Association of Zoos and Aquariums Avian Influenza Surveillance Plan
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2007
Yvonne Nadler1, DVM, MPH; Pam Dennis2, DVM, PhD, DACZM; Amy Glaser3, DVM, PhD; R. Scott Larsen4, DVM, MS, DACZM; Darrel Styles5, DVM; Dominic Travis1, DVM, MS
1Davee Center for Epidemiology and Endocrinology, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Cleveland Metroparks Zoo and Ohio State University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 4Wildlife Health Center and Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, USA; 5USDA APHIS Animal Care, Riverdale, MD, USA
Zoological institutions represent ideal sentinels for the detection of zoonotic disease in urban settings and other areas. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) worked together to develop a joint USDA APHIS–AZA Avian Influenza Surveillance Plan. This program has been developed to complement the AZA Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Emergency Guidelines for Zoos and the AZA Avian Influenza Vaccination Study. This surveillance is funded by the USDA and includes the cost of collection kits, shipping, and sample processing. Program oversight and coordination is also funded by the USDA. It consists of passive surveillance of ill and dead birds found on zoo grounds along with active surveillance on healthy bird populations in zoo collections. Initial testing will be performed at three regional diagnostic laboratories that are in the National Animal Health Laboratory Network. Samples that are positive for highly pathogenic Avian Influenza subtypes (H5 and H7) will be forwarded to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) for final processing. Along each stage of processing, individual institutions will receive notification if any of their samples are tests-positive for Avian Influenza. Three regional coordinators (UC Davis, Lincoln Park Zoo, and Cleveland Metroparks Zoo) will collect and organize sample data from the three regional laboratories and from NVSL. Information will be stored in a database compatible with that of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wildlife Health Center’s database.