Cryptococcosis in A Family Group of Goeldi’s Monkeys (Callimico goeldii)
2018 Joint EAZWV/AAZV/Leibniz-IZW Conference
Émilie L. Couture1, DMV, DES; Simon Lévesque2, PhD, Mcb A, RMCCM; Philippe Dufresne3, PhD, Mcb A, RMCCM; Stéphane Lair4, DMV, DES, DVSc, DACZM; Shannon Ferrell1, DVM, DABVP (Avian), DACZM
1Zoo de Granby, Granby, QC, Canada; 2Centre Intégré Universitaire de la Santé et de Services Sociaux de l’Estrie - Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 3Laboratoire de Santé Publique du Québec, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada; 4Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St. Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
Cryptococcosis was diagnosed in two Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii) from a family group housed exclusively indoors. A tracheal granuloma was identified in a 4-year-old male that died acutely with respiratory distress. Cryptococcus sp. was identified on histopathology. However, no fungal growth was obtained from postmortem pulmonary lung culture, and no frozen sample of the tracheal granuloma was available. Two years later, a 2.5-year-old female presented with subtle ataxia progressing to tetraparesia and altered mentation. A presumptive diagnosis of a cryptococcal meningoencephalitis was made based on serum antigen titers consistent with this infection (latex agglutination, 1:256). Initial treatment consisted of daily diluted subcutaneous amphotericin B deoxycholate (0.5 mg/kg) and oral fluconazole (10 mg/kg).1 Marked clinical improvement was noted over 6 weeks. Amphotericin B was thereafter discontinued, and periodic assessments of serum antigen titers were made to monitor the condition and adjust therapy. A cerebrospinal tap for fungal culture was not performed due to potential complications. Cryptococcus heveanensis, a non-pathogenic environmental species, was isolated from a neighboring habitat. No evidence of immunosuppression was found in any of the 5 other family members based on hematology, and only one other Goeldi monkey had a weak serological reaction on latex agglutination (1:2). All organic matter in the habitat (wood bark substrate and branches) was replaced, and air exchanges were increased in an attempt to reduce yeast/basidiospore burden in the environment.
The authors would like to thank the employees of the Zoo de Granby for their attentive care of the Goeldi’s monkey group.
1. Malik R, Craig AJ, Wigney DI, Martin P, Love DN. Combination chemotherapy of canine and feline cryptococcosis using subcutaneously administered amphotericin B. Aust Vet J. 1996;73:124–128.