Comparison of Three Anesthesia Protocols for Food-Producing Wild Boars (Sus scrofa)
2018 Joint EAZWV/AAZV/Leibniz-IZW Conference
Joy Einwaller1, DVM; Johanna Painer1, DVM, PhD; Sebastian Vetter1, PhD; Carsten Grøndahl2, DVM, PhD; Ulrike Auer3, DVM, Priv.-Doz., DrMedVet; Eva Eberspächer-Schweda3, DVM, Priv.-Doz., DrMedVet, DACVAA; Eva M. Greunz, DVM2; Claudia Bieber1, Dr. rer. nat., Priv.-Doz.; Gabrielle L. Stalder1, DVM, DrMedVet
1Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg, Denmark; 3Clinical Unit of Anaesthesiology and Perioperative Intensive-Care Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria


Legal considerations regarding the use of anesthetic drugs often concern the use of authorized pharmaceuticals for food-production. Commonly used anesthesia protocols for wild boars (Sus scrofa) include drugs not licensed for food-producing animals.1 The aim of this study was to develop an injectable anesthetic field protocol for food-producing wild boars providing an anesthetic stage of surgical tolerance, stable and physiological vital parameters and a fast and smooth induction and recovery time.

Three different protocols have been compared. Group A (n=6) received a combination of romifidinea, azaperoneb, ketaminec and butorphanold. Protocol B (n=6) consisted of detomidinee, azaperone, ketamine and butorphanol. Animals of protocol C (n=6) were premedicated with brotizolamf and azaperone, followed by a combination of ketamine, detomidine, butorphanol 15 minutes after initial injection. Animals were intubated, receiving supplemental oxygen at a flow of 2 L min-1. Presurgical meloxicamg (0.4 mg kg-1) was administered providing postoperative analgesia.

Heart rate, respiratory rate, SpO2, etCO2 and body temperature did not differ significantly between groups and were within physiological ranges. Nevertheless, animals treated with protocol A and B required additional doses to be anesthetized during induction or to maintain surgical anesthesia, significantly prolonging induction and recovery time. Protocol C required no additional doses during induction or anesthesia, providing smooth induction and recovery periods.

The combination of brotizolam (0.004 mg kg-1), azaperone (4 mg kg-1), ketamine (7 mg kg-1), detomidine (0.12 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.15 mg kg-1) provided an excellent surgical field anesthesia and can greatly facilitate veterinary management of food-producing wild boars.


a. Sedivet®, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany
b. Stresnil®, Elanco Animal Health, Bad Homburg, Germany
c. Ketamidor®, Richter Pharma AG, Wels, Austria
d. Alvegesic®, Alvetra & Werfft Animal Nutrition GmbH, Vienna, Austria
e. Equidor®, Richter Pharma AG, Wels, Austria
f. Mederantil®, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany
g. Metacam®, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany

Literature Cited

1.  Sutherland-Smith M. Suidae and Tayassuidae (wild pigs, peccaries). In: Fowler ME, Miller RE, eds. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 8th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders; 2014:568–584.


Speaker Information
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Joy Einwaller, DVM
Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology
Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Vienna, Austria

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