Diagnostic Quality of Computed Tomographic Retrograde Urethrography in Male Dogs
World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress Proceedings, 2018
T. Schwarz1; Y.L. Tan2; M. Parys1; M. Longo1; N. Bommer1; J. Saunders3
1Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies & Roslin Institute, The University of Edinburgh, UK; 2Davies Veterinary Specialists, Higham Gobion, Hitchin, UK; 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium


The urethra is a common area of urologic dysfunction in male dogs for conditions such as strictures, obstructive urolithiasis, rupture, neoplasia and incontinence. Examination of the male urethra is difficult and often requires a diagnostic imaging work-up. CT Urethrography (CTU) is a promising technique that we have developed.


This study was undertaken to establish the diagnostic quality of CTU studies in the evaluation of the canine urethra.

Methods and Materials

This is a retrospective case series. Medical records from the University of Edinburgh were reviewed to identify male dogs presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms receiving a CTU study under our protocol. Images were blindly reviewed scoring the quality of the study, number of CTUs performed and the urethral width at different levels (0– Collapsed; 1- Partially Filled; 2- Distended; 3- Stenotic; and 4- Obstructed) for transverse, sagittal and curvilinear studies. Results were correlated with the final clinical diagnosis.


Twenty-one (21) male dogs with a diagnostic quality CTU study were included. Urethral width was scored similarly across different locations and image orientations. There was complete correlation between urethral width grades 3 & 4 and clinically diagnosed stenosis and obstruction. 11/22 dogs (50%) required 1 CTU study, 9/22(41%) dogs required 2 CTU studies; and 2/22 (9%) required 3 CTU.

Conclusion and Discussion

CTU gives an accurate assessment of the urethral lumen in the male dog allowing reliable and time-efficient diagnosis of stenotic and obstructive conditions. Additional reconstructions in sagittal and curvilinear planes were helpful for the confidence of diagnosis, but did not change scoring results.


Speaker Information
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T. Schwarz
Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies & Roslin Institute
The University of Edinburgh

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