Dioctophyma renale infects the kidneys of domestic and wild carnivores. The ingested parasite penetrates the duodenal wall, enters the abdominal cavity and migrates to the kidney, where it remains until the adult stage. The recommended treatment is the parasite surgical removal, being nephrectomy indicated when only one kidney is affected. The laparoscopic approach has potential advantages over conventional surgery, such as access through small incisions, less tissue damage, less discomfort and postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization of the patient, faster postoperative recovery, lower costs and better cosmetic results.
The aim of the current study was to describe nephroureterectomy using laparoscopic approach as surgical treatment in a canine presenting unilateral dioctophymosis.
An 8-year-old female canine mongrel presented signs of apathy, progressive weight loss and abdominal discomfort. Ultrasound examination showed parasites in the right kidney and ureter as well as renomegaly in the left kidney. Numerous nematodes eggs were observed during urinalysis, consistent with Dioctophyma renale infection. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was performed using three trocars.
The patient was discharged on the 2nd day post-op. On the 7th day post-op, was observed complete surgical wound healing and no signs of infection. After one year from surgery, ultrasound, hematological and biochemical evaluation were repeated and no abnormalities were observed.
Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is a feasible and safe method, which promotes less tissue injury, less pain response, leading to fast recovery and, therefore, should be considered an alternative option to traditional surgery.