Diagnosing Sertoli Cell Tumours in Dogs Using a Novel Biomarker: Anti-Müllerian Hormone
Testicular tumours are common in dogs. Many do not give rise to clinical signs. Others, most commonly Sertoli cell tumours (SCT), may present with signs of feminization. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by Sertoli cells. In humans, AMH has been shown to be a specific marker of Sertoli cell origin in gonadal tumours. Using immunohistochemistry, AMH has been shown to be a useful marker of immature and neoplastic Sertoli cells in dogs.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of determining AMH concentration in peripheral blood in the diagnostic workup of dogs with suspected testicular tumours.
Blood was collected from 20 dogs with a testicular mass and from 27 healthy controls. Serum was analysed for oestradiol-17β using a RIA (Coat-A-Count, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) and for AMH using an ELISA (AMH Gen II ELISA, Beckman coulter). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare hormone concentrations between different groups. The study was approved by the Local Animal Ethical Committee and the Swedish Animal Welfare Agency.
All control dogs except one had AMH concentrations ≤ 10 ng/mL. Dogs with SCT or mixed tumours containing SCT had AMH concentrations higher than 22 ng/mL, significantly higher than AMH concentrations in control dogs (p = 0.0004). Concentrations between 10 and 22 ng/mL were found in about half of the dogs with non-neoplastic testicular pathologies or with testicular tumours other than SCTs.
AMH is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of Sertoli cell tumours in dogs.