Persistent Left Cranial Vena Cava and Its Association with Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities in Five Dogs
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2014
H. Jang1; H.A. Park1; M.H. Kang1; S.Y. Lee2; K.D. Eom2; J.H. Bae3; J.H. Lim3; Y.H. Kwon3; H.M. Park1
1Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2Department of Veterinary Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, 3Caviare Animal Medical Center, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea

Introduction

Persistent left cranial vena cava (PLCVC) is an uncommon congenital anomaly of the thoracic venous system both in dogs and humans, which causes dilatation of coronary sinus (CS).

Objectives

This report describes PLCVC in a series of five brachycephalic dogs, including history, concurrent cardiopulmonary (CP) diseases, and diagnostic imaging findings.

Aims

The report evaluates PLCVC with different cardiac disease status associated with difference in CS dilatation and cardiac conduction abnormalities.

Methods

Inclusion criteria of PLCVC were met by confirmation through contrast echocardiography and computed tomography (CT) in five dogs. Three of five PLCVC dogs had pulmonary hypertension (PH) and tricuspid valve insufficiency (TVI). In contrast, two PLCVC dogs had mitral valve degeneration (MVD) or mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). All cases underwent ECG, contrast echocardiography and CT scan.

Results

The size of CS was significantly dilated at least three times more in PLCVC dogs with PH and TVI than from the other two PLCVC dogs with MVD or MVI. In addition, arrhythmias, second-degree AV block, occurred in three PLCVC dogs concurrent with PH or TVI in contrast to a normal sinus rhythm in a PLCVC dog with MVD or MVI.

Conclusions

Coronary sinus dilatation resulting from PLCVC could be aggravated by concurrent CP diseases which could cause right atrium enlargement such as TVI or PH, resulting in disturbance of cardiac conduction as varying degrees of AV block. Also, as presence of PLCVC is related to genetic factors, all five dogs in this case suggest that brachycephalic breeds could be predisposed.

  

Speaker Information
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H. Jang
Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Konkuk University
Seoul, Korea


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