Prevalence of Femur Fractures and Methods of Stabilization in a 77-Case Series on a Small Animal Teaching Hospital (2012–2013)
Femur fractures represent an important occurrence in small animals' orthopedic and traumatology routine as one of the most common long bone fractures. The main causes of femur fractures are automobile and domestic accidents, besides animal interactions.
The aim of the current study was to assess epidemiological data on the type and methods of stabilization of femur fractures in small animals in a teaching hospital, in a two-year survey (2012–2013).
Database from all clinical cases of femoral fractures attended between 2013 and 2013 were assessed. Epidemiological data regarding species, radiographic classification and method of surgical stabilization were determined.
In that period, 77 patients presented with femur fractures. Regarding species, 10.3% were cats and 89.6% were dogs. The most common fracture types were: simple oblique (36.36%), Salter-Harris (29.87%), transverse (15.58%), spiral (14.28%) and non-reducible wedge fractures (3.89%). Regarding fracture repair techniques in dogs, the most common methods used were: type I external fixation (EF-I) associated with intramedullary pin (28.98%) in transverse/oblique fractures; crossed pins (24.63%) in Salter-Harris fractures; EF-I associated to cerclage wires (23.18%) in oblique and reducible wedge fractures; intramedullary pins and cerclage wires (23.18%). In feline patients, only intramedullary pins and cerclage wires (62.5%) and crossed pins (37.5%) were used in simple oblique and Salter-Harris fractures, respectively.
Simple oblique fractures were the most common fracture type in both canine and feline species. EF-I and intramedullary pin/cerclage wires were the most common fracture repair methods employed in the canine and feline species, respectively.