Feline cytauxzoonosis is a disease caused by Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan that parasites red blood cells and macrophages. It is responsible for an acute and often fatal disease in domestic cats. Studies involving this protozoa are scarce worldwide. In Brazil, the first molecular detection of C. felis in a domestic cat was reported recently, although known vectors have not yet been recorded in the country. The aim of this study was to detect by molecular technique Cytauxzoon felis infection in domestic cats from the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro and also to identify hematological disorders associated to the infection. Blood samples from 197 cats were submitted to PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using primer pair specific for Cytauxzoon felis 18S rRNA gene. Additionally, blood smears and hematological evaluation of all animals were performed. All the animals were negative for C. felis by PCR, although piroplasma forms were seen in erythrocytes of two animals. The results reveal that C. felis is not present in the population of cats sampled in the present study and outlines the possibility of other piroplasmids, such as Babesia and Theileria spp., among cats at the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Consequently, future studies are required in order to outline the occurrence of piroplasmids in Brazilian cats and the factors related to its occurrence for the adoption of preventive action aiming at animal health.