Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital heart defect in which four valve cusps are present, rather than three. Most cases are discovered as incidental findings at necropsy or echocardiography. The most common haemodynamic consequence of QAV is aortic regurgitation. The condition can be associated with other congenital or acquired heart diseases and has been reported in human beings, cats, Syrian hamsters, and the greater white-toothed shrews. Only 9 cases were described in the literature in dogs.
Describe clinical and echocardiographic findings in two dogs with QAV and associated abnormalities.
Medical records, electrocardiography and diagnostic imaging of 2 dogs with QAV were retrospectively evaluated.
Dog 1 (male Rottweiler, six-month-old) was referred for evaluation of a heart murmur and syncopal episodes. Dog 2 (male Siberian Husky, 11-year-old) was evaluated for chronic cough. In both dogs, electrocardiography was normal. Thoracic radiographs showed cardiomegaly and aortic bulging. Echocardiography demonstrated enlarged coronary cusps, dilation of the aortic root and relatively equally sized leaflets of aorta, consistent with QAV morphology type A. Dog 1 had additionally subaortic and pulmonic stenosis, mild aortic regurgitation, and moderate mitral valve dysplasia. Interestingly, dog 2 did not show other abnormalities.
QAV is a rare congenital defect that can be incidentally found in both young and older dogs and could be associated with other congenital cardiac abnormalities.
This study was partially supported by The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (institutional research development).