Biomechanical Analysis of Different Adhesive Systems on the Beak of the Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco)
1Laboratory of Comparative Dentistry (LOC), College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
The avian beak is a continuously growing structure composed of bone covered by a keratin layer (rhamphotheca). This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of a variety of adhesives applied to the keratinized stratum corneum of the beak of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The goal was to identify the best adhesive to use for beak repair and reconstruction. Nine adhesives were used and each was evaluated three times to determine the average perpendicular forces necessary to produce detachment. Additionally, the surfaces after detachment were examined using electronic microscopy (MEV) to quantitate the amount of residual resin and the morphology of the superficial keratin layers. The force until complete rupture (Newton, N) were lowest with resinous cementa (2.48 N) and highest for chemically activated Prime & Bondb combined with composite nanoresinc (104.21 N) and chemically activated Prime & Bond combined with resinous cement (110.48 N). In conclusion, the chemically activated Prime & Bond adhesive, combined with composite nanoresin or resinous cement, provided the strongest adherence for beak repair in toucans and probably other birds.
a. Enforce, 3M Laboratories, St. Paul, MN, USA
b. Prime & Bond 2.1/Selfcure, Dentisply International Corporation, West Philadelphia, PA, USA
c. Z350, 3M Laboratories, St. Paul, MN, USA