Urogenital tract disorders of domestic suids may occur in exotic species, although no case reports exist in the literature. The preputial diverticulum, unique to swine, may present medical and reproductive complications. Two species at the Bronx Zoo (BZ) have experienced preputial swelling. Intermittent self-resolving preputial swelling in one geriatric and multiple juvenile red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus) was associated with urine retention, likely a normal species variation. Distal preputial ulceration in a 5-year-old male babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis) was noted on preshipment examination prior to arrival at BZ. After 8 mo at BZ, an inability to extrude the penis for breeding and intermittent preputial swelling were observed. The animal was immobilized for diagnostics, including electroejaculation to ascertain reproductive function. Debridement of the preputial diverticulum removed caseous debris; inner preputial mucosal biopsy identified posthitis with chronic irritation secondary to preputial diverticulitis. Local irritation responded to topical antimicrobial spray (Genta-Spray, gentamicin sulfate with betamethasone valerate; Butler Schein, Norcross, GA, USA, topically SID to BID for 14 days) and reproductive rest. Preputial swelling recurred in 5 mo, and immobilization 48 h after onset revealed abscessation and necrosis of the prepuce with preputial diverticulum rupture. Aggressive surgical debridement and subsequent preputial reconstruction using oral mucosal autograft were undertaken, but graft failure occurred after 2 wk. Multiple immobilizations for wound care and stent placement successfully preserved the remaining prepuce and its patency, although reduced length resulted in permanent paraphimosis. Penile integrity has been maintained by spray-delivery lubricant (Priority Care Non-Spermicidal Sterile Lubricating Jelly, First Priority, Inc., Elgin, IL, USA; applied topically, initially up to 6 times daily, tapering to SID to BID). This case demonstrates successful management to preserve reproductive viability and highlights an under-recognized condition of exotic boars, emphasizing early intervention to avoid complications.
The authors would like to acknowledge the WCS Department of Mammalogy and Zoological Health Program staffs for their devoted care of this individual, and the Zoological Health Program Pathology Department for diagnostic biopsy service. The authors are grateful for the surgical assistance of Dr. Danielle Schilpp.