Metronomic Chemotherapy for Sarcoma Treatment in a Kori Bustard (Ardeotis kori)
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2013
Samantha Sander1, DVM; Katharine Hope1, DVM; Conor McNeill2, DVM, DACVIM (Oncology); John Roberts1, DVM, DACVP; Nancy Boedeker1, DVM; Suzan Murray1, DVM, DACZM
1Wildlife Health Sciences, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC, USA; 2The Hope Center, Vienna, VA, USA


A 25-yr-old, wild-caught male Kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) developed a large, slow-growing, subcutaneous mass over the keel. The mass was surgically debulked and described as a spindle cell sarcoma, most consistent with a myxosarcoma. Local tumor regrowth with no evidence of metastasis occurred within 3 mo of the procedure. A second surgical procedure was performed to debulk the tumor and place twelve carboplatin-impregnated calcium-based matrix beads (Matrix III beads, Royer Biomedical Inc., Frederick, MD, USA; containing carboplatin 4.6 mg/bead; Wedgewood Pharmacy, Swedesboro, NJ, USA). The beads were placed in a grid pattern approximately 1.5 cm apart, radiating out from the incision and across the tumor site. Despite the therapies employed, moderate local tumor regrowth was clinically appreciable four weeks post-operatively from the second surgery. The bird was then started on metronomic chemotherapy with once daily oral cyclophosphamide (0.42 mg/kg; Cyclophosphamide, Taylors Pharmacy, Winter Park, FL, USA) and meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg; Metacam oral suspension, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO, USA). Metronomic chemotherapy utilizes low, chronic dosing of chemotherapy agents to minimize toxicity while preventing tumor angiogenesis.1,2 Five months post-operatively (4 mo after initiation of oral chemotherapy), the tumor was no longer appreciable on palpation, hematology and serum chemistry analysis did not reveal any derangements, and the bird remained clinically normal. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a myxosarcoma and of successful metronomic chemotherapy in the Otididae family.

Literature Cited

1.  Pasquier, E., M. Kavallaris, N. André. Metronomic chemotherapy: new rationale for new directions. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2010;7:455–465.

2.  Perroud, H.A., M.J. Rico, C.M. Alasino, F. Queralt, L.E. Mainetti, S.M. Pezzotto, V.R. Rozados, O.G. Scharovsky. Safety and therapeutic effect of metronomic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and celecoxib in advanced breast cancer patients. Future Oncol. 2013;9:451–462.


Speaker Information
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Samantha Sander, DVM
Wildlife Health Sciences
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
Washington, DC, USA

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