R.S. Fecchio1; Y. Seki2; S.G. Bodde2; M.A. Meyers2; M.S. Gomes3; J. Kolososki4; J.L. Rossi1 Jr.; M.A. Gioso1,5
Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) and to investigate means for arrest of fractures in the rhinotheca using acrylic resin. The structure of the rhamphastid bill has been described as a sandwich structured composite having a thin exterior comprised of keratin and a thick foam core constructed of trabeculae composed of mineralized collagen. The keratinous rhamphotheca consists of superposed hexagonal scales (approximately 50 μm in diameter and 1 μm in thickness). In order to simulate the loading to which the beak is subjected during exertion of bite force, for example, we conducted flexure tests on the dorso-ventral axis. The beak was intact (without induced fracture) and fractured in the central portion when subject to a force of 270.4 N, with displacement of 23.3 mm. The location of this fracture served as a reference for the fractures induced in other beaks. The second beak was fractured and repaired resin was applied on both lateral surfaces. The repaired maxilla sustained a force of 69.8 N with 6.53 mm deflection. The third maxilla was repaired similarly except that it was conditioned in acid for 60 seconds prior to fixation with resin. The third sample resisted force up to 63.3N with 6.08 mm of deflection. Two other tests were conducted on intact maxillary beak, being filled out the whole surface of the rhinotheca, besides the palate. The fourth beak was not treated with acid, and it resisted forces of up to 134.4 N with displacement of 12.58 mm. The fifth sample was etched in acid and it resisted up to 101.5 N with displacement of 9.76 mm. The present work did not observe statistical correlation and, consequently, differences among the procedures (with previous use of acid attack and those without the use of the same). The experimental results were compared with finite element calculation for unfractured beak in bending configuration. The calculated bending behavior of beak having shell thickness of 1 mm is consistent with experimental results.