Brazilian Wild Animal Selection Center's Reality
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2009
Tarcízio Antônio Rego de Paula
Professor, Veterinary, Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil

In concept, Selection Centers are the first choice places for reception, recovery, and destination of wild animals that had a sad history by crossing ways with humans. Well, the term "to cross the ways" can be literal, but in most cases is in the reality a bad taste metaphor, once 89% of the animals received for the Selection Center's are proceeding from traffic. According to The Ministry of Environment only 27 Selection Center's are registered in the Brazilian territory, for a country of continental dimensions and as known, owner of one of the greatest contingent of biodiversity of the planet, this number is considered very low. There are governmental efforts intent to reverse the situation. The CETAS-Brasil Project for example, has for objective the implantation of Selection Center's and establishment of partnerships between the IBAMA and public and private institutions for the construction and maintenance of CETAS in strategic places. During the year of 2008 it had been inaugurated CETAS in Brasília-DF, Boa Vista-PR, Rio Branco-AC, Catalão-GO and Macapá-AP. However, unfortunately it doesn't exist a standard pattern in the functioning for the CETAS, what really determinate the quality and the infrastructure are the involved partnerships, thus is possible to observe CETAS with enviable structures as well as improvised and inappropriate structures. This last case unfortunately seems to be the majority of the reality. Maintenance institutions as the State Institute of Forests (IEF) in Minas Gerais, public and particular universities, companies, city halls and some ONGs have acted in a important way in the functioning of some Selection Center's, but exactly thus the precariousness and in consequence the bad use of the functions is still constant. Innumerable cases are reported in the media on action and many times lack of action of some CETAS, with disastrous consequences. Denunciations of abuses, indifferences are common, but far from being inherent to the activities, the great flow of animals, the difficulties in the treatment and the lack of destination promote a cramming of the population of animals propitiating sometimes an ugly view. In this way the Project of Law (3626/08) is in transaction in the House of Representatives, already approved in the Commission of Environment and Sustainable Development (CMADS), that it modifies the Law 9605/98 of environmental crimes in what is about the protection of the apprehended wild animals. The approved text determines that the fiscalization agencies are obliged to watch over for well-being of the animals until its destination, either for zoos or reintroduction in the habitat. What to wait as practical consequence it is still precocious, however, according to proper reporter of the project "only by administrative point, the CETAS represents expenditures. The constant and onerous maintenance, and with activities that cannot be interrupted due to resources, turns the Selection Centers susceptible to the cut or regulation of amounts of money".

Only recently (February 2008), the IBAMA regulated the creation of the Selection Centers by means of the Normative Instruction 169. They are known as--"Center of Rehabilitation of Wild Animals (CRAS): all enterprise authorized for the IBAMA, only of legal entity, with purpose of: to receive, to identify, to mark, to select, to evaluate, to recover, to create, to reproduce, to keep and to rehabilitate specimens of the native wild fauna for ends of programs of reintroduction in the natural environment; and as a Wild Animals Selection Center (CETAS): all enterprise authorized for the IBAMA, only of legal entity, with purpose of: to receive, to identify, to mark, to select, to evaluate, to recover, to rehabilitate and to destinate the specimens of the native wild fauna silvestres proceeding from the action of the fiscalization, rescues or voluntary particular delivery". The IBAMA has a commitment about the release of wild animals in the environment. More recently (June 2008) the IBAMA, considering the necessity of regulate the destination of the wild animals, published a normative Instruction (IN 179) that unfortunately it makes impracticable the action of reintroduction of animals in the majority of the CETAS. Beyond extremely bureaucratic it has the necessity of a logistic apparatus far from the current reality for the length of the requirements. It is certain that the lines of direction established by means of the Manual of Procedures for Destination of Wild Animals (MPD) had been delineated in order to minimize the risks for the species and the environment, however the foreseen protocols, amongst them: evaluation of acquittal areas; clinical and diagnostic survey; genetic survey; study of the animal behavior; monitoring after-acquittal, even so necessary demands an investment above of the possibilities in the majority of the cases.

Apparently in this Normative Instruction 179 foresees in its the Article 20 that the IBAMA will have, in the stated period of up to 5 (five) years, creating conditions effective for the complete attendance of the lines of direction stipulated in the MPD, however, at the same time reserve that the adoption of the lines of direction of the manual is not an obligation, since that duly justified. That is, if on the other hand the requirement degree becomes high has of if cogitating mechanisms for a plain B where the effectiveness of the lines of direction will not be obtained.

The main source of the enormous number of animals directed to the Cetas is without a doubt the traffic of wild animals. It's known that 10 million Brazilian wild animals are commercialized illegally to each year, is a problem of catastrophic ratios when it is entered that of each 10 removed individuals of nature only 1 effectively survive. Between rightness and errors the ambient education has sufficiently advanced in Brazil, important prompt actions has presented good results. Practically all the CETAS contribute for the subject in some way, the Project CETAS of the Viçosa Federal University for example has the "CETAS in the School" and the advances in the awareness of the little ones are really notable. On the other hand some actions have highly negative consequences and if they perpetuate, in special in the televising media, the presence of wild animals in novels and programs are a considerable incentive for the traffic, who never heard to say of a "Louro José" in some residence? Recently this personage was raised to the category of "Inspector of the IBAMA" in a program, (even without presenting its documents of origin and anilha obligator). The legalized commerce of wild animals is an important stimulation if not bigger it for the traffic. The majority of the psittacines directed to the CETAS are proceeding from apprehensions where the "owners" allege the traffic for being the accessible source to these animals, a time that the acquisition of the legal commerce is extremely expensive. However, without a doubt some the toggle more agent for I deal it illegal are the creators of small birds, many of which with an almost unhealthy motivation they become specialized in "worm up" birds captured in the nature.

The reality of the Wild Animals Selection Centers is very diverse, however, the potential for conservation of the fauna is constant. Beyond the actions in the recovery of individuals, the Cetas is a permanent source of biological knowledge that can generate an enormous gamma of scientific information and training of hand of specialized workmanship. But before everything the more effective potential for the conservation of the species is the Ambient Education.

Speaker Information
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Tarcizio Antonio Rego de Paula
Federal University of Viçosa

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