P.E. Mosko; C.S. Prosser; L.S. Castanho; K.C.P. Melo
Dioctophymosis is described in many species such as canines and wild minks, but is considered a rare disease in felines. Dioctophyma renale is distributed worldwide, especially in temperate or cold climate regions, and infestation occurs due to contaminated fish or mice ingestion. Most infections are described on the right kidney or in the abdominal cavity, and the infection of both kidneys is considered rare even in frequently committed species. A semi-domiciliated 3-y-old female domestic shorthair cat was attended presenting intermittent hematuria. On physical exam, sensitivity on renal area was noticed. Urinalysis reveled hematuria, pyuria, granular casts and renal cells desquamation. Ultrasound reveled a cyst, with cellular anechoic fluid and a cylindric echogenic structure in the left kidney. The right kidney presented irregular contours with an increased cortical echogenicity and subcapsular effusion. Exploratory laparotomy was done. The left kidney was enlarged (length = 6 cm), with a hemorrhagic and purulent fluid and a Dioctophyma renale specimen. Nephrectomy of this kidney was performed. The right kidney presented an enlargement on cranial pole with subcapsular effusion and another Dioctophyma renale specimen (approximately 19 cm length), which was surgically removed. Both ureteres were severely dilated. No other lesions were observed in the abdominal cavity. After surgery, the patient was monitored for seven days and creatinine values were normal at discharge. Although uncommon, dioctophymosis should be considered in patients presenting hematuria and a precocious diagnostic is desired in order to perform an early treatment and to guarantee an adequate renal function.