Canine Congenital Intestinal Obstruction Due to a Band and Entrapment of Small Bowel in the Pubic Bone: Case Report
E. Zacché; A.L.P.D. Fam; V. Caron; L.G.A. Capriglione; A.P. Sarraff-Lopes
The gastrointestinal tract is a complex organ system that develops from a simple digestive tube through a complicated but orderly series of events that span the period from very early embryonic life to birth. Thus, a lot of intestinal malformation occurs as a result of abnormal embryogenesis. In human medicine, abnormal adhesions are very rare cause of obstructive congenital defect, with no reference of occurrence in veterinary medicine. The aim of this report is to describe a case of congenital intestinal obstruction caused by anomalous band and entrapment of small bowel segment into the pubis. A five months old mongrel bitch was examined in the teaching hospital of Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná with signs of apathy, hyporexia, vomiting and weight lost. At the clinical examination, emaciation, failure to thrive, pallor, dehydration and weak femoral pulse were observed. In addition, distended abdomen associated with intestinal dilatation and increased peristaltic movements were seen. Besides the institution of critical care therapy the animal has died. At the necropsy examination, a small bowel segment banded and entrapped through the cranial border of pubis could be visualized. At the point and surrounding the area of entrapment there were no signs of tissue necrosis or ischemia. Before the entrapped segment the bowels were extremely distended with liquid content. During embryogenesis, abnormal adhesion of the peritoneal folds induces a congenital band which can cause small bowel obstruction. A rare cause of this situation is the intestinal band caused by remaining fibrous connective tissue leading to entrapment and consequent intestinal obstruction. In this report, the intestinal obstruction occurred due to an adhesion and an entrapment in bone tissue, making this work the first report. A fail in the process of intestinal rotation and fixation the happen in early stage of embryogenesis, together with cartilaginous tissue organization, is a possible hypothesis. In presence of signs of gastrointestinal disease, an accurate evaluation of this system is suggested. The radiographic examination is a valuable tool to define the point of entrapment, being more valuable when barium-contrasted. Early surgery procedure is the treatment of choice, but the diagnostic and treatment can be ineffective after suffering prolonged symptoms and/or in emergency, thus the prognosis become unfavorable. Congenital gastrointestinal anomalies are significant cause of death in infants, although rarely reported in veterinary medicine. The low frequency of necropsy examination in animals with unknown cause of death makes the prevalence of congenital anomalies remain speculative.